Increase in obesity in us between 1980 and 2000 6 11

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-Increase in obesity in US between 1980 and 2000. 6-11 year old age group has doubled and 12-19 year old age group has tripled. This has resulted in: -Increased typed 2 diabetes in children and adolescents -Elevated blood cholesterol/lipid levels -Increased blood pressure -Psychological problems Metabolic Syndrome: defined in various ways, but three factors are common to all definitions : 1. Presence of significant abdominal fat mass resulting in increased waistline measurement 2. Changes in glucose metabolism 3 . Changes in lipoprotein metabolism -Occurs in 1% to 4% of children and adolescents and 49% of clinically obese young people Complications: Hypertensions, Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, kidney failure and overall significantly shortening life expectancy Musculoskeletal Abnormalities Kyphosis - sometimes called hunchback is the increase in convexity of thoracic spine and has unequal growth of spinal muscles Lordosi s- also called swayback and is exaggerated concave lumbar curvature. Obesity aggravates the tendency towards condition Scoliosis- lateral curvature of the spine that affects thoracic and lumbar area and may compress heart, lungs, or both Structural scoliosis- primary spinal deformity due to unequal growth of muscles Functional, non-structural scoliosis- secondary to another problem such as back injury or spasm
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Musculoskeletal Disease Osteomyelitis- infection of the bone - Local accumulation of exudates or pus creates pressure within bony structure of rigid bone and cause pain and severe swelling - Stimulation causes surrounding bone to develop new bone growth around the infected site, walling off an area of infection and necrotic bone -Pressure of exudate may tear periosteum on surface of the bone, a sinus or passage through the soft tissue may develop, spreading infection to adjacent tissue -Possible joint involvement Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) - This is a group of auto-immune diseases that causes inflammation in connective tissue such as the joints -Specific cause: unknown Diagnosis/indicator : joint swelling or discomfort lasting more than six weeks and general signs of inflammation Treatmen t: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids for severe inflammation and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs Eating disorders Common problem in adolescents and young adults in western cultures. Primarily females but males are increasingly affected Major medical concern: effect of poor nutrition on growth/development Two major problems- anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa Anorexia Nervosa: extreme weight loss due to self-starvation Two peak periods- First: early teens (12 to 14 years) Later: 16-17 year old rang -Results in severe malnutrition, protein, and vitamin deficits. Anorexic person appears emaciated (thin, wasted) -Lack of menstrual cycle – amenorrhea -Low body temperature= cold intolerance -Low blood pressure and slow heart rate -Dry skin and brittle nails -Development of fine body hair -Low calcium intake predisposition to osteoporosis later in life
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