consumption culture towards the materialistic, enhanced by_in_centives such as credit cards“ acEB'HéiE fi gi fi bf images in advertising, as well as change in the consumption patterns of urban households, with women of all classes becoming more involved in handling the family budget. Women of all classes use a variety of outlets for shopping, especially for the needs of the family, and develop new skills to bene fi t from what each has to offer. The shopping scene is rich, with the outlet and its practices differing according to the type Of goods sold, and with wide variety in outlet design and in the drama of the act of buying and selling. From the charshi to the mall The fi rst observation about shopping in Turkey is the in ﬂ uence of a sex-segregated culture on shopping practices. The chars/12' — an element of the architectural planning of Ottoman town centres, composed of small shops directed by guild associations — is predominantly a male domain in which sellers and buyers are mostly men. The entry of women into this public domain as shoppers is a relatively recent phenomenon, and has been monitored by the family and the community quite closely. Women, as buyers, had very limited access to chars/22', and would mostly have been accompanied by men, children or servants. The remnants of this practice are still prevalent in the provincial towns where the market continues to be a male-dominated space. Itinerant peddlers sometimes brought goods to the doorsteps of women customers. The bokgacz, or women pedlars, who visited house- wives with bundles of embroidery, linen, garments and clothing — a practice that used to be considered a handy way of preparing the geyz'z, or trousseau, for young girls — was one of the main personages of the traditional mahalle (neighbourhood). One can also draw a parallel between the lifestyle and cultural outlook of the charshi esnafz — the group culture of the small merchants and artisans — and the religious setting of the chars/2i itself (Saylll, 1992, p.16): The relationship between the bazaar and the mosque in the construction of the Turkish cities cannot be overlooked. The overlap between work hours and prayer times made it necessary for the mosques to be built around the bazaar. 15111 (1985, p.541) lists three structuring elements in the traditional Ottoman life space: the mahalle, the chars/2i and the camz' (the mosque or other religious buildings) and private housing areas. The chars/2i was the centre of commercial activities as well as the administrative of fi ces of the esnaji the tradesmen who manipulated a commercial network that extended beyond the borders of the €mpire. The consumption norms were de fi ned by religious values until the nine- teenth century, when this structure was challenged by imported Western goods which became symbols of social status (15m, 1985. p.545).
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- Spring '14
- Shopping mall, Istanbul