100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 24 - 26 out of 30 pages.
-Historical accounts: case studies of historical scientific practices. Ex: Darwin’s notebooks. Zeigarnik effect: unfulfilled tasks linger in mind, which creates a need to finish a task once it is started: this explains why research can persist over many years and decades. Also explains why waiters can remember complex orders without writing them down but forgot them once the food was delivered. This may also explain work-related stress: when a situation is incomplete, it will remain active in one’s mind and since there are a lot of unfinished tasks at work, this causes stress. -Observations: in vivo-> ecologically valid research -Lab studies: in vitro-> lab based research. -Computational models: Scientific problem solving can be studied by creating computer programs that stimulate well-known discoveries.-Expertise in problem solving: expert problem solvers have more knowledge than novices and use better rules and strategies when solving problems. They organize info via deeper concepts instead of surface details. -EXP: participants asked to reconstruct a shown board displaying chess moves from memory. Experts could remember more of the board than average people. When asked to reconstruct a
chessboard with pieces in a random layout, experts were not better than the rest. This shows hat experts chunk info when encoding based on prior knowledge. -Reasoning and Choice-Reasoning: a broad concept that is influence by all cognitive domains: attention, memory, language and ideas about problem solving. Reasoning is a thought process that yields a conclusion from a set of premises (percepts, thoughts, assertions etc.).-Syllogistic reasoning: statements with premises and conclusions (major premise, minor premise and conclusion). Valid syllogism: all coffees are beverages. Lattes are coffees therefore lattes are beverages. Invalid syllogism: coffee is a beverage. Milkshakes are beverages. Therefore milkshakes=coffees.-Believability effect: if a syllogism’s conclusion is believable, people will accept it as true despite logic. -Wason’s four card task: a measure of conditional reasoning: if x, then y. Card selection task: on the surface seems easy, but people often make mistakes.-Judgments and choice: judgments-> our ability to reason and infer about unknown events and make choices based on this info. People tend to use heuristics. -Availability heuristic: we confuse the frequency with which we can remember something with how frequently it actually occurs.-Availability bias: we pay more attention to obstacles we overcome, which makes them more available from memory. This results in the perception that things are harder from oneself as compared to others (thinking parents were harsher on you than on your sibling). -Representativeness heuristic: making inferences based on similarity. We match what we perceive to out existing representations (thanks to stereotypes, schemas, or other pre-existing knowledge structure). -Small-sample fallacy: assumption that a small sample resembles the population from which they are drawn. EXP: asked to consider 2 hospitals with either 15 babies or 45 babies. Then asked which hospital is more likely to report an average of 60% male babies? Most people report it’s the