IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

2 emergency power supply consumers may possess

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2) Emergency power supply Consumers may possess appliances needing continuity of supply, such as fire sprinklers and security equipment. EES is sometimes installed as a substitute for emergency generators to operate during an outage. Semiconductor and liquid-crystal manufacturers are greatly affected by even a momentary outage (e.g. due to lightning) in maintaining the quality of their products. In these cases, EES technology such as large-scale batteries, double-layer capacitors and SMES can be installed to avoid the effects of a momentary outage by instantly switching the load off the network to the EES supply. A portable battery may also serve in an emergency to provide power to electrical appliances. 3) Electric vehicles and mobile appliances Electric vehicles (EVs) are being promoted for CO 2 reduction. High-performance batteries such as nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride and lithium ion batteries are mounted on EVs and used as power sources. EV batteries are also expected to be used to power in-house appliances in combination with solar power and fuel cells; at the same time, studies are being carried out to see whether they can usefully be connected to power networks. These possibilities are often abbreviated as “V2H” (vehicle to home) and “V2G” (vehicle to grid).
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17 1.4.3 The roles from the viewpoint of generators of renewable energy 1) Time shifting Renewable energy such as solar and wind power is subject to weather, and any surplus power may be thrown away when not needed on the demand side. Therefore valuable energy can be effectively used by storing surplus electricity in EES and using it when necessary; it can also be sold when the price is high. 2) Effective connection to grid The output of solar and wind power generation varies greatly depending on the weather and wind speeds, which can make connecting them to the grid difficult. EES used for time shift can absorb this fluctuation more cost-effectively than other, single-purpose mitigation measures (e.g. a phase shifter).
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Types and features of energy storage systems SECTION 2
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20 S E C T I O N 2 Types and features of energy storage systems In this section the types of EES system and their features are listed. A brief classification is followed by a description of the various EES types with their advantages and disadvantages. Finally the main technical features are summarized. 2.1 Classification of EES systems A widely-used approach for classifying EES systems is the determination according to the form of energy used. In Figure 2-1 EES systems are classified into mechanical, electrochemical, chemical, electrical and thermal energy storage systems. Hydrogen and synthetic natural gas (SNG) are secondary energy carriers and can be used to store electrical energy via electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen and, in an additional step, methane if required. In fuel cells electricity is generated by oxidizing hydrogen or methane.
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