Look at Table 4.10 above Push-up, Curl-up, YMCA bench press o Push-up and Curl-up in Lab notes (Norms = Table 4.12, 4.13) o YMCA bench press # of repetitions completed with proper form on bench Rate of 30 reps/min (1 rep every 2 seconds) Men = 80 lbs Women = 35 lbs
Wingate Power Test o 30 or 45 second maximal test o Cycle ergometer—count revolutions at set resistance o Measures Peak and average power Power output = kp x RPM x 6 Power ramp and drop off Slope of the line gives you how fast drop off Slope is less if they are better at sustaining the power Total work PO = W/t More muscle power, ramp faster, have higher peak, slower drop off Flexibility Flexibility Flexibility is the ability to move a joint through its complete range of motion Flexibility depends on a number of specific variables including o distensibility of the joint capsule, o adequate warm up and, o muscle viscosity Compliance (“tightness”) of various other tissues such as ligaments and tendons affects the ROM Tests o Sit and Reach o Single/multiple joint movements o Compare with normative data Goniometry is used to measure the flexibility of a single joint—measures the degrees in which you can move
SIT AND REACH (LAB) – Always take shoes off More goniometry ***Both will be given on test *** Body Composition Body Composition Basic components that contribute to body weight: o Levels—atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue, whole body o We are interested in composition on the tissue and body levels 2 component – Fat mass and Fat free mass BIA, skin folds (body density) 3 component – Fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass Multiple component – example—subcutaneous vs. visceral fat mass Types o Anthropometric Measures (BMI and circumfrences) With resistance training, BMI can go up o Indirect measures – estimate a criterion directly Example: Hydrostatic Weighing (HW) – body density This is an old criterion measure that estimates % fat
DXA is the gold standard for body comp now o Doubly indirect measures – estimate the estimate of a criterion Example: skin folds—estimate HW which is used to estimate % fat Anthropometric Measures BMI: Weight (kg)/ Height (m^2) Can estimate % fat from BMI, but large error (+/- 5%) Circumfrences o Measured with a Gulick tape o Suggestive of body fat distribution o Waist circumference = abdominal obesity o Hip and thigh circumference = gynoid obesity o High waist to hip ratio ( > 0.95 men; >0.86 women) = greater risk of T2DM, MetS, CVD, dyslipidemia, etc. o Waist circumference is used for risk stratification Indirect Measures: Hydrostatic Weighing—body density (weight/volume) – this is difficult o Weight submerged in water compared with scale weight o Fat density = 0.9007g/cc Density = weight/volume = g/cubic cm o Greater FFM (bone x lean x fat) = higher weight in water o Problems: Estimate residual volumes (calculated vs. dilution methods) Water temperature (33-36 C) Trapped air (intestinal, clothing)
Clothing weight Excess body fat (attach known weight to chair) Fat floats; less dense Fat free mass sinks
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- Fall '09