When we hold inconsistent beliefs, this creates a kind of aversive inner tension, or dissonance, we are then motivated to reduce this tension in whatever way we can ○ Often by changing our beliefs ● E.g. Aliens coming to pick the cult followers up before the end of earth, when it didn’t happen, they changed their believe to they were so faithful that God decided not to end the world ● E.g. people felt the task was more interesting after telling a lie about it being interesting for small amount of money, they had to justify their behaviour ○ People who received more money had enough justifications, they did it for the money ● Many groups required hazing ritual before a new member can join ○ Gives you the reason that I suffered to join this group, so it is worth it ● We may bias our perception, tell ourselves more about the good side of the choice we made when we experience cognitive dissonance ○ Collectivist culture also experience cognitive dissonance, just more towards interpersonal than personal ● Attitude and behaviour reinforce each other in a circular fashion, where the initial small change gradually leads to greater changes in the future ● The spillover effect does not apply to behaviours of different motivations ○ People who did it just for the money will be less likely to engage in more behaviours related to that find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
Module 15 15.1 Defining and Classifying Psychological Disorder ● Back in the days, people thought mental illness was caused by demon in the body, and they focused on driving the demon out, identifying witches, and execution. ● Then it shifted to physical affliction causing mental illness. ○ Set up asylums, residential facilities, for the mentally ill ○ Ridiculous treatments including drawing 40% of blood, throwing them into a pit of snakes etc, the goal was to shock the patient to drive them out of the state ● Moral treatment ○ By Pinel and Dix ○ Treated with kindness and decency, but still not effective ● In 1955, the introduction of Chlorpromazine freed people with hallucinating disorders such as schizophrenia. Other medications are getting developed. ○ A lot of homeless people as they quit their medications ○ This is not a cure, just to relieve the symptoms ○ Helping people to get integrated back into their normal life was largely ignored, but it is very important ● Medical model ○ Sees the psychological disorders the same as other diseases and treat the symptoms, causes and outcome as a set of physical conditions ○ Missing the whole system factor as how the person is functioning ○ Overtly narrow, focused on treating ● Biopsychosocial model ○ Understanding that multiple systems contribute to the disorder ○ Using convergent treatment to treat more than one system at a time Defining Abnormal Behaviours ● It is very hard to define what is normal as it varies between cultures ○
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- Psychology, Social anxiety disorder