special orders, and brings them back to sell to customers in the immediate surroundings of either home or workplace. Especially for lower classes, the main shopping venues are neighbour- hood-based corner shops, grocers, greengrocers and butchers, touring vans, neighbourhood open markets or small-scale markets, or supermarkets. This is due to the limitations of transportation to the centre, and to hypermarkets, which are usually situated outside the city, and also due to the advantages of a personal credit system that operates between shopkeepers and their local customers. Ayse and Sencer Ayata’s research into housing sites in Ankara shows that 40 percent of all the shopping needs in Zafertepe, a gecekondu neighbourhood are provided from neighbourhood-based shops. Also, in lower-class apartment-block neighbourhoods such as Abidinpasa and Kecioren, shopping is neighbourhood based. In Abidinpasa, the neighbourhood open market is the most popular shopping venue (37.8 percent), and in Kecioren the fi gure is 23.6 percent. According to the Ayatas’ fi ndings, there is an inverse correlation between the level of income and education and the choice of shopping in the neighbourhood.
ENCOUNTERS AT THE COUNTER However, it is possible that in upper-class neighbourhoods close to the central shopping district both the high-priced neighbourhood shops providing a selection of specialities, such as charcuterie or patisserie, and the central shopping district are used more often than in suburban upper-class areas, whose residents do most of their shopping in malls (Ayata and Ayata, 1996, p.104). Although the choice of shopping facilities differs according to social class, shoppers of the same class may bene fi t from shopping settings totally different in character. For example, in Etiler, an upper-middle-class district of Istanbul, both the luxurious up-market mall Akmerkez and Ulus Pazarl, an open market bazaar of a type known as a sosyete pazcm' (‘high-society bazaar’), cater to the area’s needs. Neighbourhood-based shopping venues provide an informal setting, especially for lower-class housewives, and have comparative advantages over malls, hypermarkets, supermarkets and department stores. While such large-scale shopping units provide product diversity, the convenience of shopping with credit cards, ‘one-stop’ shopping, and are handy for working women and middle- and upper-class family shopping, neighbourhood bazaars and shops are more con- venient for lower-class female shoppers. The different forms of shopping discussed are not necessarily in competition with each other. On the contrary, depending on the needs of their individual users, each is used strategically and complementarily. There is a web of shopping practices in which the customer obtains goods formally or informally, with the service either of trained shop assistants in high-status department stores or of door- to-door salespeople, with their more familiar ways.
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- Spring '14
- Shopping mall, Istanbul