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Automotive embedded systems today s high end

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Automotive embedded systems Today s high-end automobile may have 100 microprocessors: 4-bit microcontroller checks seat belt; microcontrollers run dashboard devices; 16/32-bit microprocessor controls engine. Embedded systems are controlled by one or more main processing cores that are typically either Microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP)
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SUSHMA RAWAL 14 Characteristics of Embedded systems Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real-time performance constraints that must be met, for reasons such as safety and usability. Others may have low or no performance requirements, allowing the system hardware to be simplified to reduce costs
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SUSHMA RAWAL 15 Characteristics of Embedded systems Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many embedded systems consist of small, computerized parts within a larger device that serves a more general purpose. For example, an embedded system in an automobile provides a specific function as a subsystem of the car itself.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 16 Characteristics of Embedded systems The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware, and are stored in read-only memory or Flash memory chips. They run with limited computer hardware resources: little memory, small or non-existent keyboard and/or screen. Some degree of re-programmability is essential flexibility in upgrading, bug fixing, product customization Interact (sense, manipulate, communicate) with the external world
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SUSHMA RAWAL 17 Characteristics of Embedded systems Never terminate (ideally) Increasingly high-performance (DSP) & networked Sophisticated functionality. Often have to run sophisticated algorithms or multiple algorithms. Cell phone, laser printer. Often provide sophisticated user interfaces.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 18 Characteristics of Embedded systems Real-time operation. Operation is time constrained: latency Must finish operations by deadlines. Hard real time: missing deadline causes failure. Soft real time: missing deadline results in degraded performance. Many systems are multi-rate: must handle operations at widely varying rates. Low manufacturing cost. Many embedded systems are mass-market items that must have low manufacturing costs. Limited memory, microprocessor power, etc.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 19 Characteristics of Embedded systems Low power. Power consumption is critical in battery-powered devices. Excessive power consumption increases system cost even in wall-powered devices. Size, weight, heat, reliability etc. Designed to tight deadlines.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 20 Characteristics of Embedded systems Manufacturing cost -Non recurring engineering cost for design and development - cost of productions and marketing each unit Best technology choice will depend on number of units we plan to produce
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SUSHMA RAWAL 21 Why do we care?
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