New Jersey Plan: a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787. The plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan, which called for two houses of Congress, both elected with apportionment according to population.Great or Connecticut Compromise: an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.Bicameral Legislature: any lawmaking body of government that consists of two separate houses or chambers, such as the House of Representatives andthe Senate that make up the United States Congress.
Separation of Powers: a model for the governance of a state. Under this model, a state's government is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the other branches.Legislative Branch: a deliberative assembly with theauthority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.Judicial Branch: the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in a country, state or an international community. The first legal systems of the world were set up to allow citizens to settle conflicts without violence. The judiciary mainly interprets and applies the law, but can in some systems create law.Executive Branch: in charge of making sure that thelaws of the United States are obeyed. The President of the United States is the head of the executive branch. The President gets help from the Vice President, department heads (called Cabinet members), and heads of independent agenciesElectoral College: a body of electors established by the United States Constitution, constituted every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president of the United StatesThree-Fifths Compromise: outlined the process for states to count slaves as part of the population in order to determine representation and taxation for the federal government“ON the Equality of the Sexes”: a 1790 essay by Judith Sargent Murray. ... In this feminist essay, Murray posed the argument of spiritual and intellectual equality between men and women.Anti-Federalists: a late-18th century movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratificationof the 1787 Constitution. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, gave state governments more authority.State’s Rights: are political powers held for the stategovernments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
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- Cliff Tyndall