ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

The need for power is the desire to have impact to be

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for success or failure rather than leaving the outcome to chance or to the actions of others. The need for power is the desire to have impact, to be influential, and to control others. Individuals high in Power (nPow) enjoy being in charge, strive for influence over others, prefer to be placed into competitive and status-oriented situations, and tend to be more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance. The best managers are high in their need for power and low in their need for affiliation. In fact, a high-power motive may be a requirement for managerial effectiveness. Coercive power is derived from people's perceived expectation that they will be punished in some way if they do not comply with the potential leader's commands. This is called coercive power, for example, slaves working for fear of being whipped. The third need isolated by McClelland is the need for affiliation. This Affiliation (nAff) need has received the least attention from researchers. Affiliation can be likened to Dale Carnegie’s goals, which is the desire to be liked and accepted by others. Individuals with a high affiliation motive strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones, and desire relationships involving a high degree of mutual understanding. Allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarded tends to decrease the overall level of motivation, according to the cognitive evaluation theory. The major implications for this theory relate to the way in which people are paid in organizations. In the past, motivation theorists have generally assumed that intrinsic motivation such as achievement, responsibility, and competence are independent of extrinsic motivators like high pay, promotions, good supervisor relations, and pleasant working conditions. That is, the stimulation of one would not affect the other. The cognitive evaluation theory, on the other hand, suggests that when extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance, the intrinsic rewards are reduced. In other words, when extrinsic rewards are given to someone for performing an interesting task, it causes intrinsic interest in the task itself to decline.
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The goal-setting theory states that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. In the late 1960’s, Edwin Locke proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. Evidence shows that specific goals increase performance, where difficult goals, when accepted result in higher performance than do easy goals. Additionally, feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback. Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher a person’s self-efficacy, the more confidence they have in their ability to succeed in a task. In difficult situations, it is found that people with low self-
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