Ch 10 muscular tissue muscle fibres fg so fog slow

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Ch. 10 – Muscular Tissue Muscle fibres: FG, SO, FOG Slow oxidative: SO: slow-twitch Red in color- most mitochondria, myoglobin & blood vessels Prolonged, sustained contractions Endurance- Marathons, maintain posture Oxidative-glycolytic (FOG): Fast-twitch A Red in color walking and sprinting Fast glycolytic: FG: Fast-twitch B White in color- few mitochondria, few BV, low myoglobin Anaerobic movements for short duration weight-lifting Calcium, potassium, sodium ions (inside vs outside a cell. Muscle tissue) Skeletal Muscle : primarily attached to bones.
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- Striated (Intercalated Discs) - Voluntary (SNS – Somatic Nervous System) Attaches primarily to the skeleton, skin or fascia Cardiac Muscle : forms the walls of the heart -Myocardium). - Striated (Intercalated Discs) - Involuntary (ANS - Autonomic Nervous System) Cardiomyocytes : regular heart mm cell Autorhythmic: Purkinje fibers = conductive cells Smooth (Visceral) Muscle : located in viscera. - Non-striated (smooth) - Involuntary (ANS - Autonomic Nervous System - Enteric Nervous System ) Attached to hair follicles in skin in walls of hollow organs -- blood vessels & GI Isotonic and Isometric Contraction Isotonic contraction= movement concentric = a muscle shortens to produce force and movement eccentric = a muscle lengthens while maintaining force and movement Isometric contraction = no movement occurs tension is generated without muscle shortening maintaining posture & supports objects in a fixed position “M doesn’t = Movement” Factors that affect blood pressure: Smoking. Being overweight or obese. Lack of physical activity. Too much salt in the diet. Too much alcohol consumption (more than 1 to 2 drinks per day) Stress. Older age. Genetics. Jugular and carotid veins vs arteries: internal and external. Ie. blood supply to head Vasoconstriction, vasodilation - opening and closing of blood vessels Side-effects of anabolic steroids
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Anabolic Steroids Similar to testosterone Increases muscle size, strength, and endurance side effects: liver cancer kidney damage heart disease mood swings facial hair & voice deepening in females atrophy of testicles & baldness in males Synaptic cleft- At a chemical synapse , one neuron releases neurotransmitter molecules into a small space (the synaptic cleft ) that is adjacent to another neuron. The neurotransmitters are kept within small sacs called synaptic vesicles, and are released into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis. axon hillock- The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon . The axon hillock is the last site in the soma where membrane potentials propagated from synaptic inputs are summated before being transmitted to the axon . trigger zone-The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.
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  • Spring '08
  • Mihai

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