4. Explain the tale of the prickly pear cactus. What does it say about the potential for predators to regulate the abundance of prey? 5. Explain the ochre sea star study. Why are ochre stars considered keystone predators? 6. Define coevolution.(Don’t worry about allelopathy.)7. Define resource partitioning. (Don’t worry about the warbler example.)8. When two species of flour beetles are grown together in a lab, one always outcompetes the other one. So why is it that both species survive and coexist well in the real world? 9. Stronger evidence for competition comes from studies in which one species is relocated from the area (or introduced tothe area), no other variables are changed, and the abundance of another species is measured over time (relative to an unaltered control area). Explain the findings of the barnacle study. The distributions of the 2 species were not both limited by the same thing. What was the limiting factor in each case, and how do we know?10. What is a myccorrhizae? Why is it considered a mutualism?11. How can termites eat wood if cellulose is indigestible to all animals?12. In the ant/acacia mutualism, explain how each species benefits.(Don’t worry about the example of orchid deception.)Ecosystems1. Define “ecosystem”. Define “biome”. Two oak woodlands in the Central Valley (e.g. the American River Parkway and the Effie Yeaw Nature Center in Carmichael) are roughly the same biome. Are they the same ecosystem? 2. Ecosystems come in many different varieties or “biomes”. Know the 8 that are mentioned in the handout. Which are the rainiest? Which are the coldest? Know their arrangement on the climograph graph.3. What is succession? What types of events can trigger the onset of succession?4. At Glacier Bay, Alaska, as the ice melts, why must moss and lichens move in before woody plants can get established? 5. The importance of spruce trees is easy for the public to grasp because spruce is a huge source of lumber and paper. Other species, like alder trees, are less used. Yet biologists note that sometimes seemingly “ less important” species can be critical for the growth of the money-making species. Explain how the Glacier Bay study supports this claim.6. What trophic level is also called the “auto-troph” level, and why does it get that name? List the trophic levels in order.Which ones are considered heterotrophic?7. When food webs are shown in a pyramid shape, what is the x-axis measuring? What % of the energy in primary consumers will be captured by tertiary consumers? (Hint: Not 10%) Where does the rest of the energy go? With all that loss of energy, why don’t food chains run down and come to a stop?8. Because energy is lost at each step in a food web, many prey individuals are needed to feed a top predator. If the prey are exposed to certain pollutants, the toxins from those many prey can be funneled into a relatively small number of predators. What is that called?