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appealed to a system of values that put the group before the individual, cohesion before diversity, revenge before reconciliation, retribution before compassion, and putting the strong against the weak. They justified the enforcement of order by violence and by the obstruction or obliteration of misfits and dissenters. Fascists wanted to unify their nations through an authoritarian state that promoted mass mobilization of the national community. Political violence, war, and imperialism, are all important factors of fascism. Monoculture (1700s)- the cultivation of a single dominant food crop, such as potatoes or rice. Societies that practiced monoculture were vulnerable to famine if bad weather or disease caused their single food crop to fail. Lead to spreading of diseases and bugs throughout societies but has allowed for large harvests of minimal resources. Pierre Pouvre tried to launch an experiment in France’s Indian Ocean. He smuggled 3,000 valuable spice plants out of Southeast Asia and planted them in the island of Mauritius off the coast of Africa. They then became the basis of a commercially successful operation in cloves, cinnamon, and pepper. He combined the policy of diversifying crops with a strategy to restore the islands’ forest to maintain rainfall levels.
Satyagraha (1919)- “The Force of Truth”. Nonviolent movement launched by Mohandas K. Ghandi, with the goal of achieving Indian independence. In India in 1919, amid riots against the continuation of wartime measures, the British suspended civil liberties. Mohandas Ghandi (1869-1948) launched a movement he called SATYAGRAHA that relied on strikes, fasts, boycotts, and demonstrations to end the British rule. British troops did not know how to respond and in once case actually shot at and killed 379 unarmed demonstrators. India wanted to get rid of Western hegemony and dismember Western Empires. Cold War (19450-1991)- Post- World War II rivalry between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies. The cold war ended in 1990-1991 with the end of the Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe and the collapse of the Soviet Union itself. Roosevelt believed that the US, Britain, Russia, and China would, in effect, divide the world among them and collaborate to police peace. But protracted conflictthreatened from 3 sources: civil wars in “liberated” countries, the ambitions of international communism, and Russia’s desire for security or power along its borders. Stalin seized or garrisoned much of Eastern Europe. An “iron curtain” as Winston Churchill put it, descended from the Baltic to the Adriatic dividing Soviet-dominated eastern Europe from the West. The “Space Race” and the necessity to always be on top was among some of the reasons for conflict between the Soviet Union and the US.