Broad spectrum penicillins broad spectrum penicillins

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Broad Spectrum Penicillins Broad-spectrum penicillins (aminopencillins)oAmpicillinoAmoxicillinAdverse effectsoRash oDiarrhea~Broad spectrum penicillins: we have the amipicillin, amoxicillin. Amoxicillin is given orally and some of the most common adverse effects can be rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting. Ampicillin and amoxicillin have the same antimicrobial spectrum as penicillin G their going to increase activity against gram negative bacilli. These are good drugs when a pt reports (usually a kid) have a ear infection due to haemophilus influenza, e. coli, salmonella, shigella. Extended- Spectrum PenicillinsAntipseudomonal penicllins oTicarcillin and piperacillinBroad spectrum, but penicillinase sensitiveEffective against organisms susceptible to the aminopenicillins plus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter species, Proteus (indole positive),Bacteroides fragilis, and many Klebsiella speicies.~Extended spectrum penicillin is prescribed for most likely Pseudomonas, and that’s IMPORTANT TO KNOW about the extended spectrum. Penicillin CombinationsBeta-lactamase inhibitors oClavulanic acid, tazobactam, sulbactamExtends antiomicrobial spectrum when combined with penicillinase- sensitive antibioticsoAmpicillin/ sulbactam[Unasyn]oAmoxicillin/ clavulanic acid [Augmentin]oTicarcillin/ clavulanic acid [Timentin]oPiperacillin/ tazobactam [Zosyn]~We have combinations like the ampicillin with the sulbactam which is uasyn, it is usually its given IV. And the zosyn, that’s usually for pseudomonas also.
Antibiotics and Anti-infective Class: CephalosporinsMost widely used group of antibioticsoBeta-lactam antibioticsoSimilar to penicillin structureoBactericidaloUsually given parenterallyoLow toxicity~Cephalosporins: next class, most widely used antibiotics they are beta lactam antibiotics, and are similar to penicillin (IMPORTANT TO KNOW). They are bactericidal, usually given parenterally and have a low toxicity. Mechanism of actionoBind to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), disrupt cell wall synthesis, and cause lysisoMost effective against cells under going active growth and divisionResistanceoBeta-lactamases (cephalosporinases)First generation destroyedSecond generation less sensitiveThird, fourth, and fifth generation agents more resistant than first and second generation agents. ~ Mechanism of action, as you can see there is different generations. The first generation usually there is going to be a higher resistance, we see a lot of drug resistance with the first generation, were now down to the fifth generation drugs. Fifth generation rugs are are more readily available and they’re going to be providing better effects against the MRSA. So fifth generation agents are going to be the drugs prescribed for MRSA, so the first generation we’re going to see resistance, second gen is less sensitive. The principle cause of the cephalosporin resistance is bc of the production of beta lactamase enzymes that are going to cleave to the

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