-Major development in chocolate during WW2, chocolate was part of military bcs of high caloric value. During war it was very hot and it melted. Military asked Hershey to give chocolate that not melt. Developed tropical chocolate, americans concerned military would eat not fight, so chocolate tasted terrible. Then army turned to Mars, produced chocolate around hard sugar shell, so it melted and expand. Then army went to Alfred Stern, keep chocolate in hard shell. Idea was to blend air into chocolate so when chocolate expand, crush the bubble of air not coating. (M&Ms- people believed red dye was #2 carcinogenic but it was #40). -Cherry blossom chocolate: no chocolate butter, made from vegetable/palm oil. Have invertase in it. In middle of chocolate there is cherry and around it, there is liquid. Cherry is packed into sugar, sugar is turned into invert sugar (glucose+fructose) by invertase. Together with sugar, small amount of water also packed and invert sugar is soluble in water, get gouey substance. -Chocolate is not associated with acne. it can lead to heartburn. Eating chocolate relaxes stomach valve, acidic content of stomach come up in esophagus. GERD = gastro esophageal reflux disorder. -Sugar is converted to lactic acid plaque by S mutans, which result in tooth decay. Chocolate also contain antibacterial agent that fight S mutans. -Chocolate supress cough by theobromine, antitussive, supress cough signal in level of brain. Presence of theobromine is why chocolate can be toxic to small animals, no ability to metabolize it. -Bitter %55 fat %30 carb, sweet %35 fat %60 carb, milk %30 fat %60 carb, cocoa %15 fat %55 carb. Fat in chocolate is stearic acid, neutral in terms of increasing blood cholesterol. Chocolate is rich in antioxidants, flavanols, prevent oxidation of LDL cholesterol. Darker chocolate, better. Chocolate increase level of nitric oxide, so decrease blood pressure. (Chocolate is high in saturated fat but contain stearic acid that netural blood cholesterol). -Addiction: Chocolate contain caffeine, theobromine, sugar, all not enough amounts to make addiction. -Chocolate contain anandamine, similar to marijuana. -Possible that chocolate is an aphrodisiac, increase level of NO, a vasodilator (viagra work by increasing NO). Also chocolate contain phenylethylene (PEA), studies show people addicted to love have this in large amounts in brain. Unfortunately does not work that way, PEA in chocolate cannot penetrate into BBB. LESSON 2 - WEIGHT CONTROL -Average weight in US increased, diabetes is increasing parallely. -Histrically: Hippocrates concerned about weight gain, he said to lose weight we have to exercise, than gave absurd advice about staying naked. Then claims like reducing soap-was away fat, mirable herbs and cellulite cream today. Diets, low carb (atkins), low fat(ornish).
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- Spring '11