2) Jackand Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water. Jackfell down and broke his crown, and Jill came tumbling after. Then up Jackgot and home did trot as fast as he could caper to old Dame Frown, who patched his crown with vinegar and brown paper.3) Albertis playing with a train set and Bruceis coloring. Then Brucestops coloring and takes one of Albert’scars. Albertpushes Bruce; Brucecries.Please do not forget to specify the following information:1) Which Situation2) Which theories3) Group members’namesGroup members’names: Situation # ____ From ________________ perspective From _________________ perspective A1: Analyzing SituationsTheories of development…Help us– Describe– Explain– Predictevents being studiedHow well did each theory do?? Which theory do you like “best”? Why?30 Methods for Studying Development Readings: Ch. 1, pg. 24-39
6 31 Studying Child Development: The Scientific Method•Treat beliefs about development as hypotheses(educated guesses) ---through theories, observations, and/or previous findings that need to be tested. •Test them using the ________ method 32 Observation Find phenomena (description) Descriptionàwhat is going on? Experimental question to be answered. Experimental question àpossible mechanism (hypothesis regarding the question). Hypothesisàscientific description of the hypothesis (operational definition) Operational definition(designing the experiment) àtesting the hypothesis. Test the hypothesisàRun the experiment, get the results. Results àanalyze the result (Statistics) Statistical results àthis what does it mean? (interpretation) Share what you have done with others to contribute to scienceà(APA). 33 The Importance of Appropriate Measurement•Measurements must yield reliable and valid results. –Reliability: Independent measurements of a behavior are consistent with each other. –Validity:The test or experiment measures what it is intended to measure. 34 Reliability•Reliability: Consistency of measures ---whether one can get the results over time? (whomever, whenever) – Interrater reliability: The amount of agreement between different observers or testers. Agreement should be high. – Test–retest reliability: Results should be similar over repeated testing. 35 Validity•Internal validity: Are the effects observed attributable to conditions the researcher intentionally manipulated?– Researcher needs to rule out other variables that could account for the research results. •External validity: Do the conclusions allow generalization beyond the particulars of this experiment?36 Scientific methods• Interview • Observation • Case Study• Correlation • Experimental
7 37 Studying Child Development: Contextsfor Gathering Data •Interviews -Structured interview: Collecting self-reports from all people being studied.