2 Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water Jack fell down and

2 jack and jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of

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2) Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water. Jack fell down and broke his crown, and Jill came tumbling after. Then up Jack got and home did trot as fast as he could caper to old Dame Frown , who patched his crown with vinegar and brown paper. 3) Albert is playing with a train set and Bruce is coloring. Then Bruce stops coloring and takes one of Albert s cars. Albert pushes Bruce ; Bruce cries. Please do not forget to specify the following information: 1) Which Situation 2) Which theories 3) Group members names Group members names: Situation # ____ From ________________ perspective From _________________ perspective A1: Analyzing Situations Theories of development… Help us – Describe – Explain – Predict events being studied How well did each theory do?? Which theory do you like best ? Why? 30 Methods for Studying Development Readings: Ch. 1, pg. 24-39
6 31 Studying Child Development: The Scientific Method Treat beliefs about development as hypotheses ( educated guesses ) ---through theories, observations, and/or previous findings that need to be tested. Test them using the ________ method 32 Observation Find phenomena (description) Description à what is going on? Experimental question to be answered. Experimental question à possible mechanism (hypothesis regarding the question). Hypothesis à scientific description of the hypothesis (operational definition) Operational definition (designing the experiment) à testing the hypothesis. Test the hypothesis à Run the experiment, get the results. Results à analyze the result ( Statistics ) Statistical results à this what does it mean? ( interpretation ) Share what you have done with others to contribute to science à ( APA ). 33 The Importance of Appropriate Measurement Measurements must yield reliable and valid results. Reliability : Independent measurements of a behavior are consistent with each other. Validity: The test or experiment measures what it is intended to measure. 34 Reliability Reliability: Consistency of measures ---whether one can get the results over time? (whomever, whenever) – Interrater reliability: The amount of agreement between different observers or testers . Agreement should be high. – Test–retest reliability: Results should be similar over repeated testing . 35 Validity Internal validity: Are the effects observed attributable to conditions the researcher intentionally manipulated? – Researcher needs to rule out other variables that could account for the research results. External validity: Do the conclusions allow generalization beyond the particulars of this experiment? 36 Scientific methods • Interview • Observation • Case Study • Correlation • Experimental
7 37 Studying Child Development: Contexts for Gathering Data Interviews -Structured interview : Collecting self-reports from all people being studied.

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