08 Overall Organization of the Nervous System

Central pattern generators integrated nervous network

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Central Pattern Generators - Integrated Nervous Network for Programmed Motor Functions (e.g. breathing, chewing) (from: J. Physiol. 572: 323-334, 2006)
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Development of Central Pattern Generators (From: Curr. Opin. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 17: 187-193, 2009)
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Autonomic Nervous System
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Sympathetic Nervous System (Fight or Flight) Parasympathetic Nervous System (House-Keeping) Two Branches of Autonomic Nervous System
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Structure of Autonomic Nervous System
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Distributions of Autonomic Nervous System (Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions) Sympathetic (Fight or Flight) Parasympathetic (House-Keeping)
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Sympathetic Trunk (Chain of Sympathetic Ganglia)
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Neurotransmitters in Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
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Kidney Adrenal gland The adrenal medulla , central core of the adrenal gland, releases epinephrine into the circulation. Epinephrine is structurally and functionally similar to norepinephrine – neurotransmitter released by sympathetic neurons. Adrenal Medulla as Part of the Sympathetic System
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1. Involuntary Regulation of Organ Functions : Heart rate, smooth muscle contractions, glandular secretions. 2. Dual Innervation with Reciprocal Activity : Sympathetic and parasympathetic often innervate same structures, but usually with opposite effects. 3. Specificity . Sympathetic can act globally (fight-or-flight response), whereas parasympathetic effects are more specific for house-keeping organ functions. Function of the Autonomic Nervous System
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Table 6.11
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Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular System
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Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular System Sympathetic Parasympathetic
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Autonomic Regulation of the Airway System Sympathetic Parasympathetic
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Autonomic Regulation of Urinary Bladder Function Sympathetic Parasympathetic
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Autonomic and Somatic Control of Bladder Function Detrusor (Smooth Muscle) Internal Urethral Sphincter (Smooth Muscle) External Urethral Sphincter (Skeletal Muscle)
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