midterm review - final copy

Competed with christianity and each adopted ideas

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competed with Christianity and each adopted ideas from the other based on dualism, or absolute opposition between the material and the spiritual aspects of the world the purpose of life is to achieve salvation by escaping the domination of the body the world is made up of the spiritual (higher, soul freedom) and the material (lower, body imprisonment) sexual experience is to be avoided o it asserts the body over the soul o it creates new souls who will also be imprisoned 5. roots of Christian attitudes towards sexuality a combination of ancient Judaism and neo-Platonism the early Christians adopted the Jew’s hatred of homosexuality and many neo-Platonist conceptions, including their dark view of all sexual experience 6. Jesus’ view of sexuality Jesus was Jewish and his mission was to reform Judaism o he was unmarried and had no children (unusual for Jews) if Jesus led by example, then his followers should be celibate like him we are also told that Jesus’ mother Mary was born by “immaculate conception” as was Jesus; Mary was a virgin somehow impregnated by God
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Week 3 o Rabbis were supposed to marry and have children 7. Paul’s view of sexuality Paul was born Jewish (Saul) as a young man, he persecuted Christians who were a dissident Jewish sect called the Nazarenes he was not one of the disciples and he never met Jesus on the road to Damascus, he was blinded by a flash of light and heard Jesus say “Why do you persecute me?” St. Paul preached that celibacy was ideal for Christians marriage was only a necessary evil, better than fornication (extra-marital sex) a cult of female virginity was encouraged St. Paul addressed that “man was not made from woman, but woman from man; neither was man created for woman, but woman for man” 8. Augustine’s view of sexuality (354 AD) wrote one of the most-read Christian books, “Confessions” while reading St. Paul, he experienced a conversion to Christianity (take and read) the words of Paul that Augustine read were “but put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, in concupiscence” (lust) for Paul, lust was evil o Augustine wrote that lust was the root of all evil human beings were guilty of original sin o we are each and all born of lust, so we are born with propensity toward sin and evil (even in marriage) o Adam and Eve were driven from the Garden of Eden for their disobedience and their shame-induced sexuality; this sin begins human history 9. Thomas Aquinas’ view of sexuality (1225 – 1274 AD) he introduced the concept of two types of sexuality: “natural” and “against nature”
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Week 3 all unnatural forms were more sinful than any natural forms o natural lust: marital intercourse > fornication > adultery > seduction > rape > incest (increasingly sinful, but all can lead to procreation) o unnatural lust: masturbation > intercourse in an unnatural position > sodomy (man or woman) > bestiality (none can lead to procreation) 10. medieval agriculture as a model for sexual morality
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