If this protective function fails, the lens blurs and the patient develops cataracts Claude Monet – suffered from cataracts, but operations at this time were not available o Even 35 years ago, an individual had to remain motionless for days after a cataract operation
29 Chemistry 181 – Lecture Notes Winter 2019 o Now, it’s easy peasy Lesson 3: Fats Intro Important molecules that contain only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Good for stored energy Buoyancy o Women who are not unusually thin have a much better advantage in open water And for necessary hormone production Chemical Structure Three carbons linked together that are each in turn attached to an oxygen atom If these 3 C double-bond O groups were attached to hydrogens, this would be glycerol The 3 C double-bond O are attached to 3 carbon chains, which distinguish from oone fat to another Tristearin: A saturated solid fat, 18 carbons in each chain o Saturated: Because all the carbon items that could be there, are there Carbon atoms like to associate with one another, so could be a linear structure But more likely: Would be in a jumbled form Percentage difference between the chains will determine what kind of fat we get I.e. the difference between chains of 18s and 16s carbon items are 2 different kinds of saturated solid fats Chains can vary in length and structure Chains align well Saturated fats solid at room temperature – i.e. butter Chains can be bonded differently If they are doubly bounded, then we get an unsaturated fat Unsaturated Fats When there are 2 bonds between 2 of the carbon items = double bond And each carbon item has just one hydrogen attached to it When we remove the glycerol part and have nothing but loose chains, this fat would have two saturated chain and one unsaturated chain If more than one double bond, it is a polyunsaturated fat All fats have a caloric value of about 9 cals/gram Canola oil: Very little saturated fat, some polysaturated fat and a lot of monosaturated fat Coconut oil: Almost all saturated fat o When you cook popcorn in coconut oil, the residual oil that maintains is all saturated fat Sunflower oil: Mostly polyunsaturated fat – means that a high percentage of chains have more than 1 double bond in them Olive oil: Very small amount of polyunsaturates and high amoung of monosaturates (only one double bond in them) Products that are mostly fat and some water Lard: 100% pig fat (has 60% unsaturated fat and 40% saturated) Beef tallow: Has more saturated fat than unsaturated Butter – mostly saturated Margarine
30 Chemistry 181 – Lecture Notes Winter 2019
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