Regeneration of NAD+ Lactic Acid formed Aerobic Respiration Sufficient O2 available Pyruvic acid enters mitochondria
o Matrix reactions Citric acid cycle (Kreb’s) o Membrane reactions Electron transport chain Citric Acid Cycle Conversion step o Pyruvic acid to acetyl group o Combines with Coenzyme A o Forms Acetyl CoA Citric Acid Cycle o Acetyl CoA combines w/ oxaloacetic acid o Forms citric acid o Reactions continue Summary of Citric Acid Cycle “One Cycle” o “One turn” o 2 CO2 o 4 reduced coenzymes 3 NADH + H+ 1 FADH2 o 1 ATP “Complete Cycle” o “2 turns” 2 pyruvic acids o CO2 o 8 reduced coenzymes 6 NADH + H+ 2 FADH2 o 2 ATP Electron Transport Chain Purpose o Oxidize NADH and FADH2 to make ATP o Regenerate NAD+ and FAD Summary of ATP Production Glycolysis o Cytoplasm o 2 molecules of pyruvate o 2 NADH + 2 H+ o Net 2 ATP Conversion Step o 2 NADH + 2 H+ Citric Acid Cycle o Matrix of mitochondria o 2 ATP o 6 NADH + 2H+ o 2 FADH2
Electron Transport Chain o Mitochondrial membrane Glycogen Metabolism Glycogenesis o Insulin o Glycogen synthase Glycogenolysis o Glycagon and epinephrine From liver Produces free glucose Gluconeogenesis o In liver and kidney Lipogenesis Glucose + AAs = glycerol & FAs o PGAL to glycerol o Acetyl-CoA FAs Triglycerides o Glycerol and FAs o Stored in adipose Lipolysis Triglycerides glycerol and FFAs o Stimulated by catecholamines, glucocorticoids, GH o Glycerol PGAL o Fatty Acids Beta oxidation FA Acetyl-CoA To Citric Acid Cycle Excess Acetyl-CoA Ketone bodies Protein Metabolism Amino Acid Pools o Protein broken down to yield free AAs o (1) converted to other AAs o (2) converted to glucose or FAs o (3) used as energy Processes o Deamination Removal of NH2 o Amination Addition of NH2 o Transamination Transfer of NH2 Absorptive State Lasts 4 hours during and after meal o Regulated by insulin
Carbohydrates o Glucose transported to liver to cells o Excess glucose to glycogen or fat Fats o Chylomicrons in lymph to blood to tissues o Lipoprotein lipase Hepatocytes, adipocytes, muscle cells Protein o AAs to liver to cells Post absorptive State Homeostasis of blood glucose Carbohydrates o Glucose from glycogen o Glucose from gluconeogenesis Slowed by liver glycogen (4 hours) Fats o Adipocytes and hepatocytes Glycerol to glucose FAs to cells Protein o Converted to AAs, used as fuel
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