Generally occur in places where the lithosphere is being stretched Can also be

# Generally occur in places where the lithosphere is

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Generally occur in places where the lithosphere is being stretched Can also be found in deltas, at the rear edges of huge gravitation slumps and slides Graben and Horst= several normal faults forming in close proximity and dipping in opposite directions Domino fault= a series of parallel normal faults and fault blocks that rotate during extension Planar fault= fault plane is planar Listric fault= normal faults that has a curved fault plane; the hanging wall is often folded into a rollover anticline o Lateral/Thrust fault Often run parallel to bedding (flat) then cut up through the layers (ramp) before finding another weak layer to follow Faults and principle stress o Thrust fault Often run parallel to bedding (flat) then cut up through the layers (ramp) before finding another weak layer to follow o Strike-slip fault A strike-slip fault is one where the fault blocks move horizontally past each other o Stress The force acting on a unit area of a rock body Normal stress= acting perpendicular to the surface; compression or tension Shear stress= acting parallel to the surface o Strain Changes in original shape or size of a rock in response to stress acting on it Types of folds (anticline, syncline, monocline) (overturned, recumbent, symmetric) o Anticline A fold with older rocks in its core o Syncline A fold with younger rocks in its core o Monocline o Overturned Both limb dip in the same direction, but one limb has been tilted beyond vertical o Recumbent Horizontal axial plane o Symmetric How to interpret the subsurface from geologic maps: cross sections Determining apparent dip -true dip; apparent thickness-true thickness,

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Seimic survey/seismic profiles Seismic profiles: interpretive geology not physical geology o Best geophysical method for exploration Using seismic waves to estimate what? o Distance of earthquake?? Types of seismic waves o Body waves P-waves= primary/pressure/compression waves S-waves= secondary/shear waves o Surface waves Rayleigh wave (rolling) Love wave (horizontal shear) Seismic wave sources: Natural vs artificial o Natural= earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides o Artificial= air-gun, dynamite, Vibroseis trucks Signal vs noise o Noise: direct wave, multiply reflected, refraction ??? o Signal: reflection ?? Used to generate profiles What is acoustic impedance Velocity and density factors o Acoustic impedance of a rock: a= v x d Velocity of seismic wave x rock density What is Reflection coeffidient o Differences between the acoustic impedance of each different layer o How intense the reflectivity will be o R= (a2-a1)/(a2+a1) Impedance (Velocisty+density) * wavelet = a seismic data trace = seismic profiles are made of hundreds of these
• Fall '14
• YanxiaMa
• Geology, Dolomite

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