Generally occur in places where the lithosphere is being stretchedCan also be found in deltas, at the rear edges of huge gravitation slumps and slidesGraben and Horst= several normal faults forming in close proximity and dipping in opposite directionsDomino fault= a series of parallel normal faults and fault blocks that rotate during extension Planar fault= fault plane is planarListric fault= normal faults that has a curved fault plane; the hanging wall is often folded into a rollover anticlineoLateral/Thrust fault Often run parallel to bedding (flat) then cut up through the layers (ramp) before finding another weak layer to followFaults and principle stressoThrust faultOften run parallel to bedding (flat) then cut up through the layers (ramp) before finding another weak layer to followoStrike-slip faultA strike-slip fault is one where the fault blocks move horizontally past each otheroStress The force acting on a unit area of a rock bodyNormal stress= acting perpendicular to the surface; compression or tensionShear stress= acting parallel to the surface oStrain Changes in original shape or size of a rock in response to stress acting on itTypes of folds (anticline, syncline, monocline) (overturned, recumbent, symmetric)oAnticlineA fold with older rocks in its coreoSyncline A fold with younger rocks in its coreoMonoclineoOverturnedBoth limb dip in the same direction, but one limb has been tilted beyond vertical oRecumbentHorizontal axial planeoSymmetric How to interpret the subsurface from geologic maps: cross sectionsDetermining apparent dip -true dip; apparent thickness-true thickness,
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Seimic survey/seismic profilesSeismic profiles: interpretive geology not physical geology oBest geophysical method for exploration Using seismic waves to estimate what?oDistance of earthquake??Types of seismic wavesoBody wavesP-waves= primary/pressure/compression wavesS-waves= secondary/shear wavesoSurface wavesRayleigh wave (rolling)Love wave (horizontal shear)Seismic wave sources: Natural vs artificial oNatural= earthquakes, volcanoes, landslidesoArtificial= air-gun, dynamite, Vibroseis trucksSignal vs noiseoNoise: direct wave, multiply reflected, refraction ???oSignal: reflection ??Used to generate profiles What is acoustic impedanceVelocity and density factorsoAcoustic impedance of a rock: a= v x dVelocity of seismic wave x rock densityWhat is Reflection coeffidientoDifferences between the acoustic impedance of each different layeroHow intense the reflectivity will beoR= (a2-a1)/(a2+a1)Impedance (Velocisty+density) * wavelet = a seismic data trace = seismic profiles are made of hundreds of these
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