Refers to the most common value in a distribution of

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refers to the most common value in a distribution of numbers
6. share and publish results-sharing your results allows other to read and use your findings in their own research-this expands the base of knowledge-most sociologists adopt the American Sociological Association style-how should one measure variables? social scientists use concepts and operationalizing variables-concepts are abstract ideas that are important to measure-operationalizing means turning abstract ideas into something measurable
-in collecting data sociologists use a variety of data-comparative studies use data from different sources in order to evaluate them against each other-cross-sectional studies look at one event at a single point in time-longitudinal studies include data from observations over time using a cohort-a cohort is a specific group of people used in a study-pros and cons of research methods-survey:-ex: interview-pros: sampling process lets researchers apply data from a few subjects to an entire population-cons: time-consuming, difficult to find participants-experiments:-ex: manipulation of variables to study human behavior-pros: gives researcher specific quantitative data-cons: ethical concerns put restrictions on the way human subjects can be used-field research:-ex: case study-pros: can study behavior in a natural environment, can be inexpensive-cons: time-consuming, ethical concerns put restrictions on the way human subjects can be used-secondary data analysis:-ex: another sociologist’s analysis of population data-pros: inexpensive, reduces time spent to collect data-cons: data not collected for the purpose in which you are using it, data could be biased by collector-a survey is an investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people by asking them questions-surveys include questionnaires and interview-surveys are usually targeted at particular populations-surveys are usually conducted in 7 steps:-clarify your purpose-define your population-choose a sample-prepare questions-decide how to collect data-collect data-record, analyze, and interpret data-populations are target groups from which researchers want to get information-because sociologists usually are limited in resources they must practice parsimony or extreme unwillingness to use resources-because of limited resources, sociologists only give surveys to a sample; a sample is a subset of the population-generalization is the extent that what is learned from a sample can be applied to the population from which thesample is taken-a random sample is a group of subjects arbitrarily chosen from a defined population-sample of convenience is a non-random sample available to the researcher-selection effects are the likelihood that a non-representative sample may lead to inaccurate results-sociologists use experiments to test ideas-in an experiment researchers try to control variables in order to test causes and effects-however, some experiments may test peoples’ interactions-Hawthorne effect

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