classification / treating non-identical objects in the same way : allows you to treat objects that appear differently as belonging together In regards to the classification of objects, we often fall victim to the illusion of the expert. ex: green, yellow, red apples can appear differently on colour dimension, but by classifying them as apples you can treat them similarly and they are able to be eaten 2. understanding our surroundings : understanding a situation and responding/acting upon it appropriately; gaining comprehension of what is going on around us present focused (not using specific prior knowledge) ex: you see two people arguing and understand that they do not need your opinion 3. prediction of future events : by categorizing your current experience and comparing it to similar experiences in memory, you can make predictions about your current situation use past experiences to make predictions future focused (using prior knowledge) ex: if you know the creature in front of you is a dog, you can predict that it would like to be scratched and wag its tail when happy 4. communication : words in our language refer to some type of category or concept, using the name allows for efficient communication one word/ name can be used to represent objects in a group jargon (terminology) is an example of communication UNDERSTANDING VS. PREDICTING understanding o helps us navigate the current situation o categorizes the current situation
predicting future events o helps us anticipate future outcomes or events o categorizes the current situation and compares it to a similar past situation o Ex. Recognizing a bear and knowing to stay away from it because it might attack ILLUSION OF THE EXPERT: the perception that something is simple for everyone because we are good at it and its simple for you ex: a professional basketball player would say dribbling is easy ex: 4 th year math student may think algebra is easy experience more illusion of the expert for simple categories o they are basic things we see every day, so accustomed because we are exposed to it harder categorize simple objects than complex objects because complex objects are more unique RULES At McMaster: Dr. Lee Brooks studied how easy it is to identify a new member of a category o are there some features you can use to identify a new member of a given category? more difficult to devise simple rules to define more abstract categories o ex: categorization rules for irony or the perfect person to date rules are not enough as they may meet technical criteria but not represent our typical image of that category o rules often fall short in describing all members of a category you may have difficulty including and excluding items for category membership, but when given a test stimulus, you can effortlessly decide membership o psychologists believe that humans have an internal representation of categories that is independent of the rules we try to define Abstract categories are difficult o
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- Winter '14
- prototype theory, Categorization, Categories, guide decision-making