● however, the researchers never sent ANY pseudo-patients this time. ● Operated with opposite social expectations, which affected the diagnoses of mental illness and treatment X. Other Major finding 1. Once a person was diagnosed mentally ill, the label influenced the interpretation of all behavior, even normal behavior 2. Patients were writing on the walls in order to take notes on their experiences to write a book on it later on when they got out. ● Doctors thought that them writing on walls was a symptom of their mental illness LOL XI. Conclusions 1. Doctor’s diagnoses were reasonable given their limited knowledge of the patient 2. BUT a diagnostic process that results in such massive errors is not very reliable - even though the treatment was reasonable, they were WRONG. 1. Doctors have a bias toward active treatment Lecture 6: Epidemiology 1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, V5 1. DSM2- “neuroses”, “Oedipal conflicts” `
● Oedipus conflict- all boys wanted to sexually possess mother, in order to do that they wanted to kill father. After unsuccessfully killing father, the boy comes more like father while indirectly possessing mother. (Vice Versa from women) ● Not observable or reliable, obviously 1. DSM3- “behavioral description of mental illness” 1. DSM4 and 5- refined and improved ● added PTSD II. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 1. Diagnosis 2. World Trade Center ● you re-experience the trauma way after the experience has actually happened ● Experience fear, anxiety, psychological depression, trouble sleeping, etc. ● It was thought that after 9-11 1 in 4 people would experience PTSD (from being on ground zero, or seeing it on TV for days straight) and there would be an increase in 25% of people with this disorder in the New York metro area. ● There was only an increase in 1-3% ● Desensitization therapy- emotions ● cognitive behavior therapy- to get you to re think about the trauma in a different way that doesn’t trigger PTSD III. Definition of Epidemiology 1. Study of distribution of disease 2. In different populations 3. Study of healthy people as well as sick IV. Terminology 1. Incidence: new cases 2. Prevalence: total number of cases. 3. Chronic Disease like diabetes 1. Prevalence higher than incidence D. Acute disease like common cold 1. Prevalence approximately equal to incidence V. Uses of Epidemiology 1. History of health of populations 1. Japanese immigrants to US, changes in diet and coronary heart disease (CHD) B. Diagnose mental health of a community 1. Survey of mental health in America using DSM III `
2. Three mile island C. Study operation of health care services 1. Emergency room D. Estimate individual risks of disease 1. Insurance actuaries
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