LIN200 Week 15 Day 2+ - final exam review

The midland dialect eg st louis the inland north

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The Midland dialect (e.g. St. Louis) The Inland North dialect (e.g. Rochester) The Upper Midwestern/North Central dialect (e.g. Minnesota) African American Vernacular English – all over the midwest Some other ethnic/nonregional varieties
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What are some features of the North central/Upper midwest dialect? Dictionary pronunciation guides are sometimes based on speakers from here and the Midland But the dialect is changing! This region has Canadian raising It also has what we call “ fortition ” (which means strengthening) of /th/ sounds “Them three” can sound like “Dem tree” This is a feature that is thought to come from
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Is The Northern Cities Shift a chain shift?
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Is the Northern California shift a chain shift?
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What is /uw/ fronting /uw/ fronting happens a lot in words like too , scoot , boot It also happens (but not quite as much) in words like scoop and loop It does not happen as much in words like school or cool In some speakers the /uw/ is fronted so much that it overlaps with the vowel space of /iy/ (as in keep ) This would not cause ambiguity because there is always still an offglide (e.g. coop would be kiyuwp)
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Non-English varieties
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What is a language family? A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family.
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What do documentary linguists do? They look at the features of languages (phonological, morpho-syntactic etc.) They attempt to identify linguistic universals and the parameters by which they vary, in order to understand the nature of the human language system.
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What do these words mean? isolating agglutinating fusional polysynthetic synthetic Isolated morphemes Many morphemes strung together One morpheme, one meaning Each morpheme may have several meanings
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What are the Latin American Varieties of Spanish? Caribbean Mexican Andean Rio Platense Chilean
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What are some Multilingual communities in the US? Hasidic Jewish communities (Yiddish) Amish/Mennonite communities (Pennsylvania Dutch) Sea Islands (Gullah) Hawai’i (Hawai’ian Pidgin) Louisiana (Louisiana French) New England (Acadian French) Native American reservations
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What keeps other languages going? Residential concentration Living together in a group of speakers of a non- English language Ideological support Promoting a culture that values a non-English language Separate institutions Schools, churches, government offices, etc. that operate in the non-English language
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What are some benefits of bilingualism (for the individual)? n Ellen Bialystok has studied the benefits of bilingualism for decades: n Delayed onset of Alzheimer’s symptoms n Improved cognitive control n Better multitasking n Better problem-solving
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What is Language Planning?
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