Mady- Popular Discontent Revolution and Democratization in Egypt in a Globalizing world.pdf

60 figure 3 top five facebook communities in the

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60 Figure 3: Top five Facebook communities in the Middle East and North Africa Source: Carrington Malin, 15 Million MENA Facebook Users – Report , S POT ON P UBLIC R ELATIONS , May 24, 2010, mena-facebook-demographics/ (last visited Mar. 13, 2013). In fact, youth movements have led Egypt’s protests using social media networks to mobilize and ask people to demonstrate. These movements were affected by what happened in Tunisia and became convinced that Tunisia's success in toppling Ben Ali proved that they could overthrow Hosni Mubarak in Egypt. 61 The most prominent youth movement was the April 6th Movement, which asked Egyptians on Facebook to support the demands of al-Mahalla al-Kubra’s workers in their strike on April 6, 2008. 62 60. C ARRINGTON M ALIN , S POT ON P UB . R ELATIONS , M IDDLE E AST & N ORTH A FRICA F ACEBOOK D EMOGRAPHICS 3 (May 2010), available at - content/uploads/2010/05/FacebookMENA_24May10.pdf. 61. Sarah Ben Neffissa, 18 Days of the Egyptian Revolution , in S OCIAL P ROTEST AND C IVILIAN R EVOLUTIONS IN A RAB C OUNTRIES 305 (Nabil Abdelfattah ed., 2011). 62. See 6 A PRIL Y OUTH M OVEMENT , (last visited Oct. 6, 2012) (official website); see also David Wolman, The Techie Dissidents Who Showed Egyptians How to Organize Online , A TLANTIC , Feb. 3, 2011, available at This content downloaded from on Fri, 11 Jan 2019 02:33:54 UTC All use subject to
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P OPULAR D ISCONTENT , R EVOLUTION , AND D EMOCRATIZATION IN E GYPT 331 Although a revolution requires organization, leadership, funding, and mass appeal, social networking media certainly facilitates publicizing messages rapidly and broadly as well as launching a massive call to action in seconds; however, social networking does not necessarily motivate people to go to the streets and fuel a revolution. In fact, the rise of youth protest movements can be explained by the end of the media monopoly in recent years and by the emergence of independent newspapers, satellite channels, talk shows, and social networking sites on the web. Such means have enabled protesters to disseminate information, post YouTube videos, communicate, and circumvent state control. Satellite channels and talk shows have helped shed light on socioeconomic problems. Newspaper articles by well-known writers, youth blogs, and Facebook pages have all contributed to expose the gravity of the emergency law and the ruling party’s policies. 63 In the recent protest movements, a number of activists used social media tools. They created Facebook pages and groups, Twitter accounts, and personal blogs to mobilize their fellow activists, communicate their message, and ultimately take on street action. Following the death of a young man in Alexandria in June 2010, the Facebook page “We are all Khalid Said” was created to disseminate information about Said’s death.
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