Discussion_week8_Environmental Health

The transmission by vectors and intermediate hosts

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The transmission by vectors and intermediate hosts and direct pathogen transfer require specific environmental and socio-economic conditions. The conditions are defined as: i. quality and quantity of water; ii. Type and frequency of human-water contacts; iii. Number and distribution of vector or intermediate host breeding sites; and iv. Exposure of humans to vector and intermediate host populations. Malaria Malaria occurs mostly in poor, tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Malaria is a complex disease causing fever, anemia and an enlargement of the spleen. This causes additional cerebral complications, especially for children. Correspondingly, child mortality rates for P. falciparum, one of the four types of malaria affecting humans, are very high with approximately one million children below the age of five dying in 1993 (WHO, 1995; WHO, 1996). Malaria is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito of the genus Anopheles. The transmission cycle is only between man and mosquitoes. Man acts as the intermediate host or reservoir and the mosquitoes as the vector. Protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium have to undergo complex development and multiplication processes both in man and mosquito before they can be further transmitted. Only the female mosquitoes are of importance for transmission, as they need a blood meal for oviposition.
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