It became an elected absolutismnot a limited

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It became an elected absolutism—not a limited government in the American mold. 38
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Execution of Charles I, 1649 39
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How Britain is different: Politics (3): Revolution is also minimized: English Civil War, 1642-51. Glorious Revolution, 1688-9. After both, traditional institutions are restored. Political divisions do not endure. Britain avoids later, proletarian uprisings. Workers are integrated without revolution. Class divisions less serious than on Continent. Why? 40
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How Britain is different: Economics An unusual ease with the market. Precocious capitalism. By 1500, the richest large country in Europe. Leader in agricultural improvement, trade. The Netherlands is Britain’s leading rival, but is finally too small to compete. Pioneer of the Industrial Revolution. Change was wrenching, but smoother than elsewhere. 41
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Industrial Revolution: begun in Britain 42
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How Britain is different: Social conflict (1): The Reformation is handled by the gov and does not deeply divide the society. Henry VIII breaks with Rome while preserving orthodoxy, 1530s. Queen Mary fails to return country to Rome. Elizabeth I establishes broad Church of England to muffle religious differences, 1559. Toleration is accepted unofficially by 1689. 43
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How Britain is different: Social conflict (2): Class conflict is minimized. Aristocracy is more functional economically than on the Continent, hence less resented. Ideological conflict is more limited. Cultural conflict is reduced by tolerance and a lack of dogmatism. Society shows openness to change. Britain becomes the template of modernity. Why was it so easy? primacy theories offer answers. 44
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Britain comes to excel at all three kinds of power: Economic power. Military power. Soft power. 45
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British power: Economics The financial power to: Finance the armed forces. Subsidize allies on the Continent. Power to tax: Based on Parliament, from 13 th century. Power to borrow: Bank of England, 1694. Britain defeated France financially . Parallel to the American defeat of the USSR. 46
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British power: Military (1) Warrior nation—successful at war. When necessary, Britain mobilizes for war better than her rivals. British Navy—biggest and best, sustains Britain’s power even during her decline. British Army—small but effective, forms nucleus of coalition armies on Continent. Special capacity to project force overseas. All this forecasts American power. 47
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“This ship is England.” 48
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Agincourt campaign, 1415 49
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Battle of Quebec, 1759 50
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British power: Military (2) The regime’s confidence stems in large part from victories in war. Limits on British power—the size of the army and the country. British goals are limited: Defending WR Mead’s “maritime system”—a world order based on peace, law, and trade. No attempt to remake the world. 51
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British power: Soft power: British wealth, military power, and free institutions earn respect abroad. Guarantor of the balance of power.
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