Even by using work study techniques trade off and

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Even by using work study techniques, trade off and other possible methods, if efficiency does not improve and the project duration is not shortened, then the only alternative left is network contraction or compression. In other words, when all those techniques, which can reduce project duration at almost zero additional cost, fail then network, contraction, expedition or crashing of activities is resorted to. This system of improvement involves extra cost because extra money is spent on overtime engagement of workforce, purchase of additional machinery, use of better materials, skilled workers, etc . The cost increases, as more and more activities are crashed and in turn, of course the project duration decreases. One has to strike a balance between the extra money spent and the project time saved. There are two types of activities- critical and non-critical. Crashing non-critical activities does not serve any purpose as they do not serve any purpose because they do not control the project duration. Completing the non-critical activities earlier does no benefit rather it increases work-in-progress. Therefore, crashing is centered on critical activities only which can reduce project duration if completed earlier. Crashing of critical activities is started from that critical activity which has least cost-time slope, i.e. , which is cheapest to crash. Activities are crashed one after the other till the activity duration cannot be reduced further or the duration of original critical path gets shortened beyond a certain limit that another path becomes critical. In that case, one activity in each of the critical paths is chosen for crashing by the same amount of time. The crashing continues to the point whereafter further decrease in project duration is not possible, because either the network reaches the compression limit or the cost of crashing is more than the amount of saving in return. 22.3.6 Resource Leveling Resource leveling or smoothing implies scheduling the activities within limits of their total floats such that fluctuations in load or resource requirements are minimized. As a result of resource leveling, the peaks and valleys in the load chart are leveled in order to keep the workforce constant and stable throughout the project duration. Keeping unnecessary large workforce means extra cost, and dismissing the workers during lean period of the project brings dissatisfaction among the workforce and bad name to the organization. Moreover, getting the skilled workforce again during the peak period is not guaranteed. Smoothing affixes actual dates to the activities, reallocates the resources between them and actually improves the utilization of resources. Of course there is a constraint in the case of resource smoothing and that is the total project duration, within which everything has to be managed.
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