NE101 Lecture Notes

Primary visual cortex angular gyrus wernickes area

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primary visual cortex → angular gyrus → Wernicke's area → Broca's area → motor cortex Hebbian Circuit Connectionist Model of Language difference circuits represent different pieces of information perception vs. how you use things Word category webs perceptual attributes animals vs. tools (kinds of words) noun vs. verb (conceptual categories) functional attributes actions to which words and concepts relate process verbs in a different way than you process nouns
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Aphasias Broca's aphasia: non-fluent speech content words (nouns/verbs) but no grammatical connectors (function words) can't find name for words not a pure production problem damage to pre-motor cortex (broca's) Wernicke's aphasia: fluent speech melodic lacks content words impaired repetition – can't understand what someone is saying neologisms (make up new words) need to have recognition to get → comprehension November 26, 2012: Somatosensory I. Receptors that Convey Sensory Information II. Somatosensory Networks in the Brain III. Control of Pain IV. The Effect of Loss of a Body Part on Somatosensory Cortex V. Beyond Somatosensation Somatosensation Somatosensory system has 3 distinct and interaction systems Proprioceptive – body position Interoceptive – body conditions (e.g., body temperature, blood pressure) Exteroreceptive – body stimuli Proprioceptive and Interoceptive Somatosensations Proprioception is mediated by mechanoreceptors Muscle Spindles: receptors located in the muscle - Sense stretch and send feedback to the brain Golgi tendon organ: located in the tendon, sense effort exerted by muscle Exteroreceptive System 1. Touch (mechanical stimuli) 2. Temperature (thermal stimuli) - skin temperature is mediated by warmth (decreases sensitivity for warmth) and cold (decreases sensitivity for cold) receptors – both static and dynamic 3. Pain (nociceptive stimuli) I. Receptors that Convey Sensory Information Embedded in the first millimeters of skin Pacinian corpuscle, Ruffini organ, Merkel disks, Free nerve endings attached to hair cells in skin when a hair cell moves, causes one of the receptors to release neurotransmitters EXTERORECEPTIVE Meissner's Corpuscle small receptive field fast adapting – quickly become desensitized sense vibrations touch Merkel's Disk Small receptive field
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Slow adapting (texture/fine detail) Touch Respond to gradual skin indentation (e.g., Braille) Pacinian Corpuscle/Ruffini Organ large receptive field deep pressure detect stretching, shape touch and pressure PAIN Injury triggers release of: Bradykinin A peptide whose activity is short-lived Causes intense pain Substance P: Associated with afferent fibers for pain Histamine: causes inflammation (swelling, itchiness, redness) Prostaglandins: Category of hormones sensitizes nerve endings to histamine Inflammation Aspirin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis (NSAID) II. Somatosensory Networks in the Brain The Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscus and A nterolateral Spinothalamic Pathways for
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primary visual cortex angular gyrus Wernickes area Brocas...

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