Used during nervous situation parasympathetic the

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Used during nervous situation. Parasympathetic: The “rest-and-digest” system, it conserves energy, and is used during relaxed situations. Somatic: controls the voluntary action of skeletal muscles. Central Nervous System: the brain and the spinal cord The brain has 40 billion neurons which leads to 40 trillion synapses. The Neural Network: Neural Network : systems of neurons with a common purpose. Some are innate (you are born with it). Ex. Visual perception, reflex. Some are learnt (they are not connected to as much neurons as the innate ones) ? 11
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Neuron that tend to fire at the same time tends to be more connected These connections breakdown if they are not stimulated for a long time. (if you don’t use it , you lose it). Emotional memories do not need repetition because they are vivid to begin with. Spinal Cord: The connection between brain and peripheral nervous system Sensory neurons enter the sensory system, etc. Responsible for reflexes, the sensory goes to the spine and comes back immediately without going to the brain. Studying the Brain: Brain Damage: Lesions (destroy a particular part of the brain) on animal brain and see the behavior change in the animal Electroencephalogram, neuroimaging techniques: look at brain structure, metabolic and electric acitivities. Electroencephalogram (EEG): Measures the electrical activity of the brain Tells what’s happening in the cortex. Brain waves : these show that there are constant stimulation in the brain that occur at regular intervals. Used to diagnose epilepsy Event related potentials : the electrical potential that is triggered by the stimulus. Ex. Use this to diagnose people with visual cortex damages Gives timing for event-related procession. Positron emission Tomography (PET): Measures metabolic activity through tracking radioactive glucose given prior to the 12
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PET scan. As radioactive glucose decays, it emits positrons as it decays. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI: gives a detailed 3-D image of the brain Magnetic field passed through the head which causes the atoms to spin in the same way. A brief radiowave pulse passed through the head which desynchronize spinning atoms. Atoms give off radio waves when they return to their synchronization. Scanner detects waves of a particular frequency based on the type of atom. Functional MRI (fMRI): Measures recent metabolic blood flow; measure the oxygenation of blood Take multiple MRI scans Parts of the brain The Brain Stem: The oldest part of the brain, even primitive organism have this: Medulla (Oblongata) : involved in heart rate, breathing, blood pressure Pons : important for motor movement Cerebellum : (this is a pair, there is a left and a right part) it’s at the base of the brain, for coordination of movement, has roles in learning, memory, judging time, discriminating between sounds and texture.
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