Description schemas affect what we notice how we

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Schemas affect what we notice, how we interpret things and how we make decisions and act. They act like filters, accentuating and downplaying various elements. They also help us forecast, predicting what will happen. We even remember and recall things via schemas, using them to „encode memories.Schemas appear very often in the attribution of cause. The multiple necessary cause schema is one where we require at least two causes before a „fit to the schema is declared. Once we have created or accepted a schema, we will fight hard to sustain it, for example by ignoring or force-fitting observations that do not comply with the schema. It is only after sustained contrary evidence that many of us will admit the need to change the schema.Schemas are often shared within cultures, allowing short-cut communications.We tend to have favorite schema which we use often. When interpreting the world, we will try to use these first, going on to others if they do not sufficiently fit. Schema Example For example, a young child may first develop a schema for a cat. She knows that a cat is cute, has hair, four legs and a tail. When the little girl encounters a puppy for the first time, she might initially call it a cat. After all, it fits in with her schema for the characteristics of a cat; it is a cute animal that has hair, four legs and a tail. Once she is told that this is a different animal called a puppy, she will modify her existing schema for a cat and create a new schema for a puppy. Types Of Schemas Role Schemas: Are about proper behaviours in given situations.Expectations about people in particular roles and social categories (e.g., the role of a social psychologist, student, doctor, teachers,janitors,Blacks) Self-Schemas: Are about oneself.We also hold idealized or projected selves or possible selves.Expectations about the self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information(eg, if we think we re reliable we ll try to always live up to that image. If we think we are sociable we are more likely to seek the company of others. ) Person Schemas: It s about individual people.Expectations based on personality traits. What we associate with a certain type of person (e.g., introvert, warm person,outstanding leader,famous footballer) Event Schemas: Are also known as Scripts.Are about what happens in secific situations.Expectations about sequences of events in social situations. What we associate with certain situations (e.g., restaurant schemas,Demonstration,First Dating) Schema Theory in Education Richard Anderson, an educational psychologist, played an important role in introducing schema theory to the educational community. In a 1977 paper Anderson pointed out that schemata provided a form of representation for complex knowledge and that the construct, for the first time, provided a principled account of how old knowledge might influence the acquisition of new knowledge. Schema theory was immediately applied to understanding the reading process, where it served as an important counterweight to purely bottom-up approaches to reading. The schema-
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