Richard Rogers’ Millennium Dome is a structure of tremendous efficiency (Figure 7). At 365m in diameter, Teflon-coated glass-fibre membrane provides 100,000m2of enclosed space. The building was finished ahead of schedule and came in under-budget. It is still in use many years after its required lifespan. Figure 7: The Millennium Dome(1999) by Richard Rogers Partnership  Newer developments have taken membrane materials and given them an injection (literally – of air). The 4000 ETFE (Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene) pneumatic cushions of the Watercube (or National Aquatics Centre) in Beijing (Figure 8) allow for more light and heat penetration than traditional glass at 1% of its weight . Figure 8: Surface of The National Aquatics Centre, Beijing (2007) by PTW Architects  3.1.4 GEOMETRY There is always beauty to be found in geometry but how can we apply geometry to the design of surfaces? When is it ‘right’? The discussion of perfect proportion in design will always continue but we can say which geometries are structurally superior, and we can also borrow directly from nature. Typically, superyachts don’t use geometric elements in their design (aside from windows), defaulting to smooth arcs and double-curvature.The geometrical structure of the waterside Harpa Concert and Conference Centre in Reykjavík (Figure 9) is inspired by basalt crystals – natural geometric forms. Its southern façade is comprised of over 1000 quasi-bricks, which reflect light with kaleidoscopic effect. Figure 9: Harpa Concert and Conference Centre, Reykjavík (2011) by Henning Larsen Architects with Olafur Eliasson  3.2 FUNCTIONAL SURFACES Functional surfaces of a building and potentially a superyacht can be designed through consideration of: 3.2.1 COLOUR Colour is one of the simplest changes to make to any design, but also one with huge perceptual impact. As discussed in section 2.3, the white surfaces of the superyacht can accentuate its size. Colour breaks can affect the aesthetic stability, lightness, dynamic, and even length of an object. Though superyachts traditionally have a relatively limited palette of exterior finishes (gloss white, tinted glass, lacquered timber), the introduction of darker colours (e.g. finishing the hull in navy blue) can have a dramatic effect on their appearance. Wally have famously utilised silvers, greys and blacks for their range of motor vessels, giving them a distinctly military chic. The colour of architecture however, is most often that of the chosen materials (though paints and renders might be applied). As much as there is beauty in visible structure, there is beauty in visible materials. Gehry’s Guggenheim Bilbao shimmers in the light. Its titanium panels not only protect the building from the elements but also reflect surrounding colours much like fish scales – an appropriate and honest waterside aesthetic.
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Figure 10: The Perceived Effects of Colour Breaks Figure 11: Guggenheim Bilbao(1997) by Frank Gehry  3.2.2 GRAPHICS (2D) Two-dimensional graphical treatments in architecture
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