Dramatic tenor Powerful voice is capable of heroic expression 6. Basso buffo takes comic roles can sing very rapidly 7. Basso profondo very low range, powerful voice, takes roles calling for great dignity Camerata – small group of nobles, poets and composers. Castrato – a male singer who had been castrated before puberty. Ground basso or, basso ostinato – bass repeated over and over while the melodies above it change.
The Baroque Sonata, a composition in several movements for one to eight instruments. Trio sonatas, sonata with two high lines and a basso continuo. Trill is an ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of two tones that are a whole or half step apart. Suites, sets of dance inspired movements. French overture first presents a slow section with dotted rhythms that is full of dignity and grandeur. Chorale or hymn tune, was sung to a German religious text. Chorale prelude – a short composition based on the hymn tune that reminded the congregation of the melody. Church cantata, music expression in the Lutheran service and one which used chorales. The oratorio like an opera it is a large scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra. It is usually set to a narrative text. Arioso, vocal line that is something between a recitative and an aria, more lyrical than the one, less elaborate than other. CLASSICAL STYLE (1750 – 1820) HAYDN MOZART BEETHOVEN MOOD, classical composers will fluctuate in mood (only masters where able to compose wide emotional range ) RHYTHM, flexibility of rhythm adds variety to classical music. A classical Composition has a wealth of rhythmic patterns, whereas a baroque piece contains a few patterns that are retreated throughout. Classical style includes unexpected pauses, syncopations, and frequent changes from long to another may be either sudden or gradual. Texture is homophonic. Pisces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another. Melody, mostly tuneful and easiest to remember. Composers would borrow popular tunes. Dynamics and the Piano, classical composers’ interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change (crescendo and decrescendo). Replacement of the harpsichord by the piano. Piano was invented around 1700. Late 18C
piano called fortepiano. Basso Continuo was abandoned. The Classical Orchestra,Strings: 1th 2d violins, violas, cellos, double basses Woodwinds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons Brass: 2 French horns, 2 trumpetsPercussion: 2 timpani Classical Form 1. Fast movement 2. Slow movement 3. Dance-related movement 4. Fast movement Different form for every movement. Vienna center of music! Sonata Form – form of single movement, three main section: 1. EXPOSITION, sets up a strong conflict between the tonic key and the new key and between the first theme and second theme. Than comes a bridge, or transition, leading to the second theme 2. DEVELOPMENT most dramatic section of the movement.
- Summer '11
- Music, Baroque music, Musical notation, G.F. Handel