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99*From 1793-1794, the Committee of Public Safety guillotined 40,000 peoplesuspected of various crimes against the nation.100*Before the Terror had run its course, traitors, conservatives, monarchists, and even dissident Jacobins who criticized Robespierre such as Danton were all beheaded.101*In 1794, the fratricidal terror took one last grisly turn.102*On 9 Thermidor, Robespierre himself was seized and beheaded ending the Terror. He who lived by the guillotine died by the guillotine.103*From 1795-1799, revolutionary France was governed by a 5 man Directory.VI. The Revolution, Phase 3: Napoleon Bonaparte, 1799-1815104*Napoleon was empowered by moderates who feared the masses and a return to the Terror. 105*A general by age 24, Napoleon had already won victories in Italy by age 30.106*When he seized power from the Directory in 1799 he was already a national hero.107*His coup d’etat of 18 Brumaire was bloodless and it gave him an opportunity not power. Future actions determined the longevity of his rule.108*For 5 years he ruled as any constitutional leader of a Republic might, but by1805, and at war with all Europe, he named himself Emperor of France. 109*A conservative in France, he was revolutionary for the rest of Europe. 110*In France, he halted the path of the revolution, but saved it from total destruction. From 1792-1815, there was almost uninterrupted war in Europe. 111*There is an old joke bandied about in the circles of military historians: What’s the shortest book in the world: the book of French war heroes. Comedianshave forgotten Napoleon.112*Ironically, when Napoleon came to power he tried to sue for peace but was rejected by Britain and Austria. Big mistake. 113*In 1802, Napoleon’s armies destroyed the Austrian forces, knocking them out of the war. 114*The only European power left was Great Britain, which had no armies in continental Europe. 115*In 1803, Napoleon tried to bring his fleet in the Mediterranean to Northern France for a cross channel invasion of England, but in a surprise attack at Trafalgar, British Admiral Lord Nelson sunk the French and Spanish navies. 116*This was one of history’s key naval engagements: it bought Great Britain time because surely Napoleon would have launched a cross-Channel invasion of England.117*Still, Napoleon remained undefeated on land.
118*In 1805-1807, he won brilliant victories at Austerlitz, Jena, and Auerstadt, all in Germany. 119*West and Central Europe belonged to him. 120*By 1810, he was more powerful than ever. He viewed himself as the Emperor of a Continental System of Europe.121*From 1799-1812 Napoleon won virtually every battle waged on land in Europe. 122*The secret to Napoleon’s military success was never sheer numbers or tactical superiority. On paper the Prussians and Austrians in combination were much stronger and more proficient in the art of killing. The secret to Napoleon’s military strength lie in five factors: 123*1) civilian armies with high morale. Prussians and Austrians believed that you left fighting to the professional army. Napoleon conscripted civilian men, many of whom were not only fighting for him and the French nation, but to spreadthe ideals of liberty and equality to oppressed peoples. Napoleon’s men truly believed that they were liberating Europe.