Some types may have other side effects•Progestin-only pills, contraceptive skin patch, vaginal ring, injections, implants
Intrauterine Contraceptives•IUD•Placed in uterus through cervix to provide protection from pregnancy for 5-10 years•Mechanism not understood, but may affect sperm/egg movement and/or affects lining of uterus to prevent implantation •Redesigning to reduce previous associated risk of PID & infertility•Two available – ParaGard (no hormones) & Mirena (progestin)•>99% effective•Possible discomfort, cost, complications, no STI protection
•Emergency Contraception•Morning-after pills•NOT abortion pills (this method will not work if the woman is already pregnant)•Behavioral Methods•Require self-control, diligence, commitment, may be more prone to user error•Withdrawal •Abstinence & “Outercourse”•Fertility Awareness Methods (cervical mucus method; body temperature method)•Surgical Methods•Female & Male Sterilization
Abortion•Termination of pregnancy by expulsion or removal of the embryo or fetus from the uterus•Most occur because of unintended pregnancies•May happen because of rape or incest•May be due to financial or emotional inability •Legalized in 1973•Prior to this, women who wanted to terminate had to travel to another country, consult an illegal abortionist, or perform their own abortion. Procedures sometimes led to infertility or death•Pro-choice – woman’s right to make decisions about her own body & health•Pro-life – embryo or fetus is a human being with rights that must be protected•Emotional aspects – no evidence to show that abortion causes long-term mental health outcomes in women•Best predictor of post-abortion well-being is pre-abortion well-being•Factors that contribute to higher risk of negative response after are: perception of stigma, need for secrecy, low levels of social support for decision, prior history of mental health issues, low self-esteem, avoidance & denial coping strategies
Methods of Abortion•Determined by how far along the woman is•Read more in your book p.183-184•Surgical•During 1sttrimester - Suction curettage (aka vacuum aspiration or dilation & curettage (D&C))•During 2ndtrimester – Dilation & evacuation (D&E)•During 3rdtrimester – rare; D&E or induction abortion. Partial birth abortions have been banned•Medication•No entry in uterus; 97% will experience complete abortion with this method
After Tiller•Reality is complicated, but abortion is often presented as a black & white issue•Film framed from POV of 4 drs that perform late-term abortion •They recognize the moral & ethical complexity better than anyone•3rdtrimester, those performed after the 24thweek of pregnancy; comprise <1.2% of all abortions that occur in the U.S.