Based on the discussion of ideologies covered in the

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2.Based on the discussion of ideologies covered in the first section of the course, assess the ideological trends you see emerging in the contemporary political order – i.e., which ideologies are hegemonic, whether they are breaking down, what alternatives are emerging, etc. Your answer may be specific or general, local or global (or a mixture), but must use specific examples from the latter parts of the course to back up your claims.-Hegemonic = ruling or dominant in a political or social context.-New Liberalism is hegemonic?Yes!-Liberalism is an important ideology because it has been the dominant political tradition inthe West for many centuries.-Classical liberalism emphasizes limitation of the state’s role, it calls for the state to do little apart from ensuring internal and external security and enforcing private property rights. This view is partly justified on the grounds that the market id the most effective means of meeting human needs.-There is also a moral dimension in that a limited state maximizes individual freedom and rewards those who work hardest.
-Classical liberalism was challenged toward the end of the nineteenth century, when the extent of poverty was beginning to be recognized and socialism was emerging as an alternative. -In response to these changes, liberal thinkers such as Thomas Hill Green, Leonard Hobhouse and John Hobson called for a new liberalism emphasizing social reform.-The new liberalism dominated the political landscape for much of the twentieth century.-New liberals saw a more positive role for the state in correcting the inequalities of the market. -Breaking down?-Social liberals argued that, far from reducing liberty, state intervention actually increased it by expanding the opportunities for individuals to achieve their goals.-Taken over by who?-In the 1970’s however, a revised version of classical liberalism emerged to challenge it under the guise of the New Right, and the right-wing governments, particularly in Britain,the US and Canada, were elected on platforms that reflected, in part, the classical liberal agenda.

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