Can cook in beef tallow, so saturated fat won’t form nonenals, BUT then we’re trading problems related to saturated fats Monounsaturated fats are the best call (peanut/olive oil) Hydroxy-nonenal is a carcinogen (something that causes cancer)
Percival Pott noticed chimney sweep’s carcinoma (cancer of the scrotum) – smoke is a problem! Carcinogens were discovered by accumulation of soot causing cancer of the scrotum A carcinogen is a substance that causes cancer in some animal in some dose It does NOT mean that it is known to be a human carcinogen, a substance that has the POTENTIAL to cause cancer A cup of coffee contains about 10mg of known carcinogens (acrylamide, caffeic acid, benzene, styrene, formaldehyde, furfural) but it doesn’t cause cancer!! Small amounts are inconsequential and coffee is the #1 source of antioxidants that can mitigate the effects of carcinogens o Furfural : 200mg per kg of body weight in a rodent triggers cancer o Would have to eat 6,000 loaves of bread to match the furfural content that causes cancer in rodents Acrylamide was first learned about in a tunnel in Sweden – workers used a polyacrylamide gel that got in the water and cows living in the area nearby got sick Dr. Margareto Tornquist @ University of Stockholm realized that water & soil was contaminated with acrylamide o After investigation, soil and water was contaminated with acrylamide o Realized acrylamide is present in a variety of food like French fries Forms naturally when certain foods are heated to a high T o It forms naturally when certain foods are heated to a high temperature o Fries cooked at 175 degrees C had 300 ppb acrylamide o But at 180 degrees C, they had 1100 ppb! Acrylamide is a chemical reaction between glucose + asparagine and under high temperature, you form it
Any time you bake things like bagels and breads (with wheat), you form a bit of acrylamide Acrylamide is a carcinogen NO ASSOCIATION has ever been made between occupational exposure to acrylamide and cancer (ex: people who work with polyacrylamide gel) A bunch of studies show no association between dietary acrylamide and cancer In California, “carcinogen” raises alarm = Proposition 65 o Any substance known to the state of California to cause cancer must be known to general public (ex: acrylamide) o Warnings everywhere in Cali – effect is nothing o When you make everything seem dangerous, nothing is taken seriously o Warning on cola beverages in Cali (not for high sugar) but because it contains caramel and when burnt, it releases a chemical (4 – methylimidazole) in rodents who drank 10 000 cans of cola per day – increase in some cancers, decrease in mammary gland cancer – but nobody would say soda is an antioxidant Paracelcus – 16 th C “Only the dose makes the poison” Risk = hazard x exposure x sensitivity Dose is important in PREVENTION as well Anti-carcinogens Antioxidants are substances that can neutralize the incidence of free radicals o
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- Spring '11
- Nutrition, Atherosclerosis