cholesterol) and their LDL (bad cholesterol) is of the ‘small particle’ type - Nikolai Anichkov (1885-1964): • theory that saturated fat builds up in arteries and causes atherosclerosis (= disease of arteries characterized by deposition of plaque) • fed rabbits with cholesterol which led to build-up of deposits in vessels which triggered heart attacks 32 of 66
• However, rabbits don’t normally have cholesterol in their diets — not very reliable - John Gofman (1918-2007): • Found that cholesterol was carried around in bloodstream in lipoproteins • Lipoproteins —> made of triglycerides (cholesterol), proteins and phospholipids • Lipoproteins levels linked to heart disease - John Yudkin (1910-1995): • looked at sugar intake instead of fat intake (also parallels increase in heart disease) • Keys was aware of sugar connection: explained that heart disease correlates with sucrose in the diet because of the intercorrelation of sucrose with saturated fat. (= sugar intake parallels fat intake — together) • Yudkin disagreed — (= believed that sugar alone could be the cause) - Island St-Helena: high heart disease, low fat diet, high sugar diet - Questioned heart attack patients and found they had been eating twice as much sugar as the control patients - Did an intervention study where he put young men on sugar-rich diet and 1/3 showed ‘sugar sensitivity’ = increase in insulin, cortisol, weight and platelet aggregation - Idea brought now by Dr. Robert Lustig - Coronary heart disease in the leading cause of death • can be caused by high intake of fat OR sugar OR both - Heart disease: • plaque buildup in coronary arteries (= that feed the heart), • blood clot can form around these plaques • when the blood flow is interrupted there is heart attack VIDEO 3 AND 4 RISKS FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE • Being born underweight (low birth weight) • Male • Hypertension = high blood pressure damages arteries • Inactivity • Obesity • Smoking 33 of 66
• Diabetes • Stress • Microbes (enter via mouth when gums bleed — floss or die) - Cytomegalovirus - Chlamydia pneumonia - Porphyromonas gingivalis • Homocysteine - Formed in the body from a dietary component — forms when methionine (an amino acid) is metabolized by the body - Methionine —> Homocysteine —(breakdown is catalyzed by B vitamins—> Various Metabolites - Dr. Kilmer McCully (1969): injected homocysteine in rabbits and triggered heart disease - CONT’ = Harvard University School of public Health (1992): • 14,000 male physicians studied • Those whose blood levels of homocysteine were in the top 5% had a heart attack risk three times greater than subjects with the lowest levels • Typical range of homocysteine according to study : - Men: 8-12 µM - Women: 6-10 µM - Risk beings: 11 µM - How do you reduce homocysteine? • By taking B vitamins as supplements or by eating fruits and vegetables high in B vitamins • Idea = vitamin B would help metabolize the Homocysteine in the blood • 400 µg folic acid, 3 µg vitamin B12, 3 µg vitamin B6 - Does reducing homocysteine reduce the risk of heart attacks?
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- Spring '11