cholesterol and their LDL bad cholesterol is of the small particle type Nikolai

Cholesterol and their ldl bad cholesterol is of the

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cholesterol) and their LDL (bad cholesterol) is of the ‘small particle’ type - Nikolai Anichkov (1885-1964): theory that saturated fat builds up in arteries and causes atherosclerosis (= disease of arteries characterized by deposition of plaque) fed rabbits with cholesterol which led to build-up of deposits in vessels which triggered heart attacks 32 of 66
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However, rabbits don’t normally have cholesterol in their diets — not very reliable - John Gofman (1918-2007): Found that cholesterol was carried around in bloodstream in lipoproteins Lipoproteins —> made of triglycerides (cholesterol), proteins and phospholipids Lipoproteins levels linked to heart disease - John Yudkin (1910-1995): looked at sugar intake instead of fat intake (also parallels increase in heart disease) Keys was aware of sugar connection: explained that heart disease correlates with sucrose in the diet because of the intercorrelation of sucrose with saturated fat. (= sugar intake parallels fat intake — together) Yudkin disagreed — (= believed that sugar alone could be the cause) - Island St-Helena: high heart disease, low fat diet, high sugar diet - Questioned heart attack patients and found they had been eating twice as much sugar as the control patients - Did an intervention study where he put young men on sugar-rich diet and 1/3 showed ‘sugar sensitivity’ = increase in insulin, cortisol, weight and platelet aggregation - Idea brought now by Dr. Robert Lustig - Coronary heart disease in the leading cause of death can be caused by high intake of fat OR sugar OR both - Heart disease: plaque buildup in coronary arteries (= that feed the heart), blood clot can form around these plaques when the blood flow is interrupted there is heart attack VIDEO 3 AND 4 RISKS FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE Being born underweight (low birth weight) Male Hypertension = high blood pressure damages arteries Inactivity Obesity Smoking 33 of 66
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Diabetes Stress Microbes (enter via mouth when gums bleed — floss or die) - Cytomegalovirus - Chlamydia pneumonia - Porphyromonas gingivalis Homocysteine - Formed in the body from a dietary component — forms when methionine (an amino acid) is metabolized by the body - Methionine —> Homocysteine —(breakdown is catalyzed by B vitamins—> Various Metabolites - Dr. Kilmer McCully (1969): injected homocysteine in rabbits and triggered heart disease - CONT’ = Harvard University School of public Health (1992): 14,000 male physicians studied Those whose blood levels of homocysteine were in the top 5% had a heart attack risk three times greater than subjects with the lowest levels Typical range of homocysteine according to study : - Men: 8-12 µM - Women: 6-10 µM - Risk beings: 11 µM - How do you reduce homocysteine? By taking B vitamins as supplements or by eating fruits and vegetables high in B vitamins Idea = vitamin B would help metabolize the Homocysteine in the blood 400 µg folic acid, 3 µg vitamin B12, 3 µg vitamin B6 - Does reducing homocysteine reduce the risk of heart attacks?
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