The textile hazard class restrictions will be split

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mentioned previously). The textile hazard class restrictions will be split into textile hazard categories A and B. The following restrictions will in principle apply: Ecolabels and Organic Certi fi cation for Textile Products 179
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Substances classi fi ed with textile category A hazard classes should not be used in dyeing, printing, and fi nishing processes and should not be present on the fi nal product. Substances classi fi ed with textile category B hazard classes should only be used in dyeing, printing, and fi nishing processes where they have been speci fi cally designated for use and according to associated designated conditions. For these substances, concentration limits must be respected. In the revision, concentration limits (with respect to the weight of the fi ber) for different kinds of fi nishes will be introduced (e.g. 20 % for fl ame retardants, 0.3 % for water and stain repellents) and a certain durability of the effect will be required. New criteria concerning restriction of aerial emissions from fi nishing processes, namely in terms of organic substances, are also expected in the future. 3 Oeko-Tex 100 Oeko-Tex Standard 100 was developed in 1990 by a group of European research and testing textile institutes, in response to the needs of the general public for textiles that pose no risk to health. The label simply assures that the textile does not contain chemicals that are potentially harmful to the human health (or the so-called human ecology) (Zippel 1999 ). The basic elements of the Oeko-Tex ® system are as follows: Globally uniform and scienti fi cally based (textile and human ecologically rel- evant) test criteria Annual re-evaluation and development of the stipulated limit values and criteria (every year the Oeko-Tex Standard 100 is revised) Testing and certi fi cation of the textile products through independent test institutes Testing of textile raw materials, intermediate, and end products at all stages of processing (modular system) Product conformity through internal quality management within the companies Company audits to ensure the best possible certi fi cation process and targeted support for operational quality assurance Product monitoring by means of regular control tests in the market and site inspections by independent auditors from the Oeko-Tex Association Oeko-Tex tests are based on the three different methods of chemical absorption by the body: Cutaneous absorption. Using an arti fi cial sweat solution, the amount of the substance that detaches from the existing fabric due to perspiration is determined. Ingestion. Ingestion of harmful chemicals plays an important role, especially in the case of baby items. This aspect is examined with tests using arti fi cial saliva. 180 L. Almeida
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Inhalation of harmful substances. The possibility of inhaling any harmful sub- stances in air is determined by laboratories using olfactometry and emission analysis.
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