Pharmacology I Study Guide-2.docx

Testosterone responsible for many sexual and

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Testosterone: responsible for many sexual and metabolic effects, puberty and physical changes Androgens: maintain changes caused by testosterone Castration : removal of the testes Sexual response: 1. Stimulation of sympathetic NS 2. Plateau 3. Climax 4. Recovery/resolution Lipido desire, excitement, orgasm Chapter 40: Drugs Acting on the Female Reproductive System Estrogens : systemic effects; protecting the heart from atherosclerosis, retaining calcium in the bones, maintaining secondary sex characteristics. Used for the discomfort of menopause, HRT Interactions: grapefruit juice, corticosteroids, barbiturates Adverse effects: breakthrough bleeding, changes in libido, fluid retention, electrolyte imbalance, HA, NV, abd cramping Estradoil (Estrace) Progestins : transforms the endometrium while inhibiting secretion of FSH and LH which prevents follicle development and ovulation. BIRTH CONTROL Treat uterine bleeding, fertility programs, contraceptives Adverse effects: vaginal irritation, breast enlargement, abd pain, abortion Norethindrone acetate Estrongestrel (NuvaRing) Oxytocics : stimulate contractions of the uterus to assist during labor Chapter 41: Drugs Affecting the Male Reproductive System
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Androgens : male sex hormones, replacement therapy in hypogonadism and delayed puberty in males. Adverse effects: acne, edema, weight gain, fatigue Chapter 38: Agents to Control Blood Glucose Levels Endocrine gland produces hormones in the islets of Langerhans Exocrine gland releases sodium bicarb and pancreatic enzymes directly into the common bile duct to be released into the small intestine; neutralizes the acid chime from the stomach and aids in digestion Insulin hormone produced by beta cells of the islets of Langerhan; released into circulation when the levels of glucose around these cells rise; stimulates the synthesis of glycogen, the conversion of lipids into fat stored in the form of adipose tissue, and the synthesis of needed proteins from amino acids -also released in response to incretins, peptides that are produced in the GI tract in response to food. -GLP-1: increases insulin release and decreases glucagon release (in prep for the nutrients that will soon be absorbed), also slows GI emptying to allow for more absorption. -as a result of insulin release, blood glucose levels fall and insulin release drops off. Diabetes Mellitus complex disturbances in metabolism, affects carbohydrate, protein, and fat metab. Clinical signs include hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Long term alteration in the body’s disability to metab fats, protein, and carbs results in thickening of basement membrane in small and large blood vessels. This thickening leads to changes in oxygenation of the vessel lining; damage to the vessel lining leading to narrowing and decreased blood flow; and inability of oxygen to rapidly diffuse across the membrane to the tissues leading to: Atherosclerosis: plaques in vessel lining Retinopathy: resultant loss of vision as tiny vessels in the eye are narrowed and closed Neuropathies:
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  • Spring '16
  • Loren Martin
  • Adrenergic receptor

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