According to posen jaramillo and griffin 2016 the bio

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According to Posen, Jaramillo and Griffin (2016), the bio-based plastics only accounted for less than one percent of the global thermoplastic production. This is expected to grow to 4.4 percent, reaching nearly seven million tonnes (Mt) by 2018. Mulyono N. et al., (2015) stated that a big environment concern is the gathered waste of non-degradable plastics. Agricultural resources have been collected and used to produce renewable, biodegradable, and even more edible packaging. It creates a hug expectation for more ecological and economically viable alternative to minimize the environmental impact. One of the most commonly used is cassava flour, these biopolymers as food packaging material because it is nontoxic, biodegradable, biocompatible, low cost, renewable and abundantly available in nature. Its major component is starch, but it may contain a small amount of lipid, protein, fiber and ash. In Indonesia, cassava is one of the cheapest and common root vegetables across the country. Bioplastic contains cassava starch, vegetable oil, and organic resins. The material is biodegradable and compostable, breaking down over a period of months on land or at sea. However, it dissolves instantly in hot water. In making the bioplastic made from cassava, white vinegar, and a glycerin/glycerol are the materials that needs to be present. According to 17
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Delany (2017), white vinegar is comprised of acetic acid (about 5-10%) and water (about 90-95%), which yields a vinegar with an incredibly clean, crisp, strong taste. (Schon, M. & Schwartz, P. 2013) also stated that white vinegar ions react with the starch polymers and make them be disordered more easily in the solution. This disorder, resulting from the disruption by the water and the ionization by the acetic acid, makes the resulting cast film more homogenous. The researchers also expressed that water plays an important role in the production of bioplastic. First, it acts as a solvent to dissolve the starch. Secondly, it helps the starch molecules to stay disrupted after heating. The researchers experiment on water and starch concluded that the most suitable ratio in making bioplastic bags is 57% water to 43% of starch. Lastly, Glycerine is a neutral and colorless liquid with a high boiling point, which turns into paste when temperature decreases. It can be liquified in alcohol and water but not in oils. Both alcohol and water can dissolve, but not in oils. It is also a brilliant solvent, and many different mixtures can be simply dissolved into the component (Brown, 2017). According to Girao et.al . (2010), In the process in making bioplastic cassava, measured amounts of water and starch must be mixed and boiled, using a hot plate until it forms into a sticky paste. After removing the starch-water mixture from the hot plate, the rest of the materials were 18
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added such as White Vinegar and glycerine. After mixing all the materials, the mixture was passed through a roll-mill with a designated temperature of 118 degrees to 120 degrees Centigrade. Then, it was compressed, using a compressor with a temperature of 130 degrees Centigrade for seven minutes. Several tests were conducted to determine the mechanical
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  • Fall '19
  • Cassava, Biodegradable plastic

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