➔By 1980, Canada took measures to limit further US penetration➔1988; they signed a free-trade agreement ❏Canada's most distinctive issue➔Their growing agitation by French Canadians in Quebec for regional autonomy or indep. A new party, founded in ‘67, took control of the provincial gov during the ‘70’s. The legislation limted the use of English in Quebec, but their indep failed in the ‘80’s. A new canadian constitution in ‘82, granted a greater voice to the provinces to counter the french canadian demand and to recognize the growing econ strength of the resource rich w provinces. ❏Post war changed that occurred with Australia and New Zealand➔They moved traditionally away from britain. They joined a mutual defense pact w the US in ‘51, directed against communist aggression in the PAcific. They coop w US in Korean war, and Australia backed US intervention in Vietnam. ➔NZ barred US nuclear armed vessels in ‘85. ➔Australia became Japans major raw material supplier➔Australia gov backed down from a whites-only immigration policyThe “US Century”?❏What role did the US assume after WWII and why➔US was the leading nation of democratic and capitalistic values➔The SU success of installing communist regimes across E Europe prompted the US. ➔In 1947 Harry Truman promised to support people who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. (directed against communist pressures on Greece and Turkey)--> elaborated into the marshall plan❏Efforts made to contain communism at home and abroad➔Suspected peoples were taken out of jobs➔Military spending increased w the formation of the Strategic Air Command to stand in constant readiness in case of a sudden SU attack➔The US resisted S Korea from being invaded by communist N Korea in the ‘50’s (led by general Douglas MacArthur)
➔US then decided to invade N Korea, which was backed by communist China→ ‘53: new boundary bw S and N Korea est ➔During the 50’s, under pres Dwight Eisenhower, US decided on policy to contain SU. Us allied w NZ, Australia and some SEA nations, and ME nations (surrounded the SU)➔US unable to Cuba from becoming communist➔US maintained policy of vigilance (under Pres John Kennedy in ‘62) by forcing SU to withdraw its missile sites on Cuba❏Lesson learned from Vietnam War➔‘60’s: Intervention against communist revolutionaries in S Vietnam escalated. ➔US Air force began bombing N Vietnam in ‘65. ➔By ‘68, US was spending $2 billion a week on war that never produced any success. By ‘68 domestic pressure, mainly by college students forced a change in strategy. ➔New US pres Richard Nixon tried expanding the war to Indochina, to increase pressure on N Vietnam➔Peace negotiations made w N Vietnam were made in ‘73. By ‘75 US withdrew from Vietnam❏What impact did the policies of Pres Ronald Reagan have on the Cold War➔Promised to “ride tall” in world affairs again➔Some raids were conducted against suspected terrorists in the ME.