Two thirds of the time they convince all the others

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Two-thirds of the time they convince all the others If only one person is correct This “minority of one” almost three-fourths of the time fails to convince the group When given tricky logic problems Three, four, or five heads are better than two o Brainstorming
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Contrary to the popular idea that face-to-face brainstorming generates more creative Researchers agree it isn’t so (Paulus & others, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2000; Stroebe & Diehl, 1994) Contrary to the popular idea that brainstorming is most productive when the brainstormers are admonished “not to criticize” Encouraging people to debate ideas appears to stimulate ideas To extend creative thinking beyond the brainstorming session (Nemeth & others, 2004) People feel more productive when generating ideas in groups (partly because people disproportionately credit themselves for the ideas that come out) Researchers have found that people working alone usually will generate more good ideas (Nijstad & others, 2006; Rietzschel & others, 2006) Large brainstorming groups are especially inefficient In accord with social loafing theory Large groups cause some individuals to free-ride on others’ efforts In accord with normative influence theory They cause others to feel apprehensive about voicing oddball ideas Cause production blocking Losing one’s ideas while awaiting a turn to speak (Nijstad & Stroebe, 2006) Enhance group brainstorming Combine group and solitary brainstorming With new categories primed by the group brainstorming Individuals’ ideas can continue flowing Without being impeded by the group context that allows only one person to speak at a time Have group members interact by writing Take advantage of group priming Brainwriting Incorporate electronic brainstorming Avoid the verbal traffic jams of traditional group brainstorming in larger groups Group decision making - Group members have unique knowledge o Should be able to make better decision
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- When group members freely combine their creative ideas and varied insights o Frequent result is not groupthink group problem solving The influence of the minority: How do individuals influence the group? - Consistency o Sticks to its position o Nonconformity, especially persistent nonconformity Is often painful Being a minority in a group can be unpleasant o Minority slowness effect A tendency for people with minority views to express them less quickly than do people in the majority (Bassili, 2003) o Minority influence stimulates a deeper processing of arguments Often with increased creativity (Kenworthy & others, 2008; Martin & others, 2007) o With dissent from within one’s own group People take in more information Thinking about it in new ways Often make better decision (Page, 2007) - Self-confidence o Consistency and persistence convey self-confidence o Any behavior by a minority that conveys self-confidence Tends to raise self-doubts among the majority (Nemeth & Wachtler, 1974) o By being firm and forceful The minority’s apparent self- assurance may prompt the majority to reconsider its position
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