Energy point o pv cells convert sunlight into energy

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energy point o PV cells convert sunlight into energy through chemical reactions as sunlight knocks loose electrons U.S. fossil fuel consumption profile (Figure 15.2) o Oil consumption has risen the most, followed by coal and natural gas What is EROI? Hint: it takes energy to make energy. o Energy returned on investment. Quantity of energy returned from a process divided by the amount of energy invested into the process Primary vs. secondary extraction of oil o Primary extraction is when the oil and gas rises to the surface on its own accord due to the pressure release when first tapped into o Secondary extraction involved injecting seawater beneath the oil or pressured gas above the oil to force the oil up and out Why is the offshore drilling risky? Environmental impact
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o Its very hard to correct defections and technological failures, leaks take a long time to plug up and the oil spreads quickly and expansively in the ocean, making it hard to contain! Coal – U.S. has a large coal reserve (Table 15.2); environmental impacts; clean coal technology o US has top coal reserves, Russia has top natural gas reserves, Saudi Arabia has top oil reserves o Clean coal technologies, Chemical convert or physically remove pollutants o Drying wet coal, cleaner burning o Coal is converted into cleaner gas through ‘gasification’ reacting oxygen and steam at high temperatures Natural gas – where are they usually found? In what way it “cleaner” than other fossil fuels? o Cleaner burning ½ CO2 emissions as coal o Mostly made up of methane o Biogenic gas formed in shallow water from decomposition o Thermogenic gas, results from compression and heat deep underground Energy conservation approaches – efficiency and curtailment o Energy efficiency is the capacity to obtain a given amount of output whilst having a lower energy input o Conservation is reducing energy use o Cogeneration captures excess heat produced when electricity is created and uses it
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Nuclear power – U235; fission process; nuclear meltdown; cost and benefit; wastes o Neutron hits atom of Uranium U235 splitting it and
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