Methods Through the phenomenological perspective and interviews we intended to

Methods through the phenomenological perspective and

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Methods Through the phenomenological perspective and interviews, we intended to understand the phenomena of disability and employment experiences as per- ceived by seniors and recent college graduates with disabilities, and thereby fi ll the gap in the literature. Phenomenology is a philosophy in and of itself that intends to achieve accurate descriptions of phenomena of interest and to gain a deeper understanding of the nature of the meaning of lived experiences in the natural attitude (Van Manen 1990). Edmund Husserl is considered the father of phenomenology (Van Manen 1990), and Husserl s Ideas (1931) intro- duced pure consciousness and intentionality of consciousness in describing and understanding phenomena as well as a much developed concept of Epoche . In uenced by Descartes, Husserl recognized the value of doubt to discover the nature and meaning of things as they appear and in their essence (Moustakas 1994, 26). Phenomenology has two main schools of thought hermeneutic phenomenol- ogy and transcendental phenomenology (Moerer-Urdhal and Creswell 2004; Moustakas 1994). Hermeneutic phenomenology is the theory and practice of inter- pretation (Van Manen 1990, 179), whereas transcendental phenomenology is a design for acquiring and collecting data that describe human experiences. Both phenomenological approaches in uenced this study. Hermeneutic theory of inter- pretation served to interpret or explain the lived experiences and perceptions of college students and graduates with disabilities. The transcendental phenomenologi- cal approach allowed us to go back to Husserl s notion of the systematic re ection on meanings and analysis of the pure phenomena (essence) that appear in acts and intentionality of consciousness. It led us to interpret and reinterpret participants poignant testimonies and chronicles through multiple phenomenological data reduc- tion procedures. Additionally, Alfred Schutz s critical perspective can shed light on the phenom- ena of lived employment experiences. Schutz (1944), Schutz (1967) established the basics of social phenomenology (or, phenomenological sociology) to suspend our common beliefs and to understand how human phenomena are experienced in con- sciousness, bracketing socially and culturally in uenced knowledge. Through The Stranger: An Essay in Social Psychology , Schultz questioned human practices such as the taken-for-granted assumptions, ’ ‘ ready-made standardized scheme, ’ ‘ the reci- pes, and thinking as usual (1944, 501 505) by which his mundane social phe- nomenology was developed. Thus phenomenological research tends to focus on the description of the essence of human experiences dealing with true and particular phenomena. 842 M.M. Kim and B.C. Williams
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Data collection The interviews took place at an urban four-year private university located in the mid-Atlantic Region of the USA. We collected data by interviewing eight college seniors and recent graduates with physical disabilities. According to Groenewald
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