11. In what ways have historians tried to explain the origins of patriarchy? Historians say that with the advancement in agricultural technology, farming became too laborious for women and so they made less contribution to the food source. Also the increase in population means that women were pregnant most of the time and had to spend more time caring for the children. While women were busy with the household, men had time
to be active in society, and so women’s role degraded in man’s regard. 12. How did Mesopotamia and Egyptian patriarchy differ from each other? • Mesopotamia: Men were superior in every aspect of life. They could not have lovers or own property. It was very hard for women to get a divorce. Women’s main role was child rearing and other compatible tasks, they had no say in societal matters. • Egypt: the women of Egypt had similar roles to the Mesopotamian women, except, they were legal equals to men. They could buy or sell or own land, they could divorce easier. Men did not undermine their wives as much. The Rise of the State 13. What were the sources of state authority in the First Civilizations? They were kings that regulated society. Their power stems from the recognition that regulations are needed, Writing also helped the state along with the grandeur of kings. Divine right to rule. 14. Compare and Contrast Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations. Mesopotamia Egypt Political: • made up of conflicting, independent city-states • each city was ruled separately by a king representing the patron deity of said city. • was later taken over by different peoples that unified the city states. Political • centralized, powerful state • ruled by Pharaohs • cities searately were less prominent than the nation as a whole. • managed 3000 years of this system
Environment: • flat expanse of easily travelled terrain made invasion easy • economy relied on the production of wheat and barley • The heart of he civilization were the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that rose unpredictably and Environment: • natural ridges and mountains provided security to the region • the economy relied on agriculture, mostly wheat • The heart was the Nile which rose and fell predictably each year.
sometimes damaged crops. Culture: • the warring states • dismal outlook on life • unstable conditions made many fear death • literate and literature conveyed their contempt for death • cuneiform Culture: • Believed in the afterlife • worshipped many gods • built pyrimids and had elaborate burials • they were elite and literate • hieroglyphs
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