Iron was also used to simplify the building of houses, espically after the development of economic methods of manufacturing corrugated iron (Herbert, 1978, pp.33–39). In 1849 the Californian gold rush and the sudden increased of emigration to Australia provided markets for pre-fabricated structures and . . . the iron houses of E. T. Bellhouse of Manchester could be seen in profusion in San Francisco. White, 1965, p.13 The use of timber and iron in combination was developed further to provide easily erected; prefabricated and sometimes re-locatable, buildings; such as housing, hospitals and stables for the army in the Crimea during 1849–56 The High Orchard Saw Mills at Gloucester produced prefabricated huts by the hundred, for use in Britain and for shipping out to the Crimea. The efficiency of production and dispatch was impressive. A thousand men operated the factory by day and night, in shifts. As the barracks were completed they were packed into portable packages, each numbered in accordance with the code contained in the instruction sheet . . . In one month, from mid-December 1854 to me-January 1855, 1,500 huts for enlisted men and 350 for officers were thus completed and dispatched, via France, to the battlefront. From the initial order in mid-November, until mid-January, a total of 3,250 units were constructed, crated, and shipped out to the British and French armies. (Herbert, 1978, p.78) A report to the War Department in 1856 confirmed that the Gloucester huts answered the requirements that it should be easy to transport on ship, easy to erect on land that is, within the capability of the regiment’s own skills and easy to repair, using improvised parts (Report of a Board of Officers 1856). The military continued to be interested in developing prefabricated quickly erctable and relocatable buildings and one result of investigations by a First World War Canadian engineer officer called Captain Nissen into simplifying and speeding up the construction of simple shelters led to the ubiquitous Nissen Hut. This type of corrugated iron barrel- vaulted hut could be erected: after a short introductory training session, by four men in four hours on any foundation. And big enough to provide sleeping space for 24 people widely used for temporary housing. After the second world war, these shelters were often still in use after more than ten years (Blomeyer and Tietze, p.17–18). Bibliography BLOMEYER, G.R., and TIETZE B. (1984). Die andere bauarbeit: zur Praxis von Selbsthilfe und kooperativem Bauen. Stuttgart, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. FREELAND, J. M. et al (1969). Rude timber buildings in Australia . London; Thames and Hudson GIEDION, S. 1962. Space, Time and Architecture Oxford, Oxford University Press. 304 YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT
HERBERT, G. (1978). Pioneers of prefabrication: the British contribution in the nineteenth century . Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
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