AP World Histoy Concept Outline.pdf

N western european countries began abandoning

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n Western European countries began abandoning mercantilism and adopting free trade policies, partly in response to the growing acceptance of Adam Smith’s theories of laissez-faire capitalism and free markets. n The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large- scale transnational businesses that relied on new practices in banking and finance. n Railroads, steamships, and the telegraph made exploration, development, and communication possible in interior regions globally, which led to increased trade and migration. AP World History: Modern Concept Outline 8 © 2019 College Board Period 5: c. 1750–c. 1900
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n In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves, often in labor unions, to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages. Workers’ movements and political parties emerged in different areas, promoting alternative visions of society. n In response to the expansion of industrializing states, some governments in Asia and Africa, including the Ottoman Empire and Qing China, sought to reform and modernize their economies and militaries. Reform efforts were often resisted by some members of government or established elite groups. n As the influence of the Industrial Revolution grew, a small number of states and governments promoted their own state sponsored visions of industrialization. n In response to the social and economic changes brought about by industrial capitalism, some governments, organizations, and individuals promoted various types of political, social, educational, and urban reforms. n New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed. n While women and often children in working class families typically held wage- earning jobs to supplement their families’ income, middle-class women who did not have the same economic demands to satisfy were increasingly limited to roles in the household or roles focused on child development. n The rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism at times led to a variety of challenges, including pollution, poverty, increased crime, public health crises, housing shortages, and insufficient infrastructure to accommodate urban growth. Key Concept 5.2 — As states industrialized, they also expanded existing overseas empires and established new colonies and transoceanic relationships. n Some states with existing colonies strengthened their control over those colonies and in some cases assumed direct control over colonies previously held by non- state entities. n European states, as well as the United States and Japan, acquired territories throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined. n Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to expand their empires in Africa.
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