Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

Dna is a nucleic acid dna is a polymer and is made up

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DNA is a nucleic acid . DNA is a polymer, and is made up of monomers called nucleotides . Each nucleotide consists of a sugar , a phosphate and a nitrogenous base . It is the sequence of the nitrogenous bases that provides the ’code’ for the arrangement of the amino acids in a protein. 205
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10.7 CHAPTER 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES - GRADE 12 Exercise: Summary exercise 1. Give one word for each of the following descriptions: (a) A chain of monomers joined by covalent bonds. (b) A polymerisation reaction that produces a molecule of water for every two monomers that bond. (c) The bond that forms between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid monomer during a polymerisation reaction. (d) The name given to a protein monomer. (e) A six-carbon sugar monomer. (f) The monomer of DNA, which determines the sequence of amino acids that will make up a protein. 2. For each of the following questions, choose the one correct answer from the list provided. (a) A polymer is made up of monomers, each of which has the formula CH 2 =CHCN. The formula of the polymer is: i. -(CH 2 =CHCN) n - ii. -(CH 2 -CHCN) n - iii. -(CH-CHCN) n - iv. -(CH 3 -CHCN) n - (b) A polymer has the formula -[CO(CH 2 ) 4 CO-NH(CH 2 )6NH] n -. Which of the following statements is true ? i. The polymer is the product of an addition reaction. ii. The polymer is a polyester. iii. The polymer contains an amide linkage. iv. The polymer contains an ester linkage. (c) Glucose... i. is a monomer that is produced during cellular respiration ii. is a sugar polymer iii. is the monomer of starch iv. is a polymer produced during photosynthesis 3. The following monomers are involved in a polymerisation reaction: H 2 N C H H C O OH H 2 N C H H C O OH + (a) Give the structural formula of the polymer that is produced. (b) Is the reaction an addition or condensation reaction? (c) To what group of organic compounds do the two monomers belong? (d) What is the name of the monomers? (e) What type of bond forms between the monomers in the final polymer? 4. The table below shows the melting point for three plastics. Suggest a reason why the melting point of PVC is higher than the melting point for polyethene, but lower than that for polyester. Plastic Melting point ( 0 C) Polyethene 105 - 115 PVC 212 Polyester 260 206
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CHAPTER 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES - GRADE 12 10.7 5. An amino acid has the formula H 2 NCH(CH 2 CH 2 SCH 3 )COOH. (a) Give the structural formula of this amino acid. (b) What is the chemical formula of the carbon side chain in this molecule? (c) Are there any peptide bonds in this molecule? Give a reason for your answer. 207
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10.7 CHAPTER 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES - GRADE 12 208
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Part III Chemical Change 209
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Chapter 11 Physical and Chemical Change - Grade 10 Matter is all around us. The desks we sit at, the air we breathe and the water we drink, are all examples of matter. But matter doesn’t always stay the same. It can change in many different ways. In this chapter, we are going to take a closer look at physical and chemical changes that occur in matter.
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